Tampilkan postingan dengan label English Literature. Tampilkan semua postingan
Tampilkan postingan dengan label English Literature. Tampilkan semua postingan

Analysis of a Poem 'The Play Way' by Seamus Heaney


Sunlight pillars through glass, probes each desk
For milk, tops, drinking straws and old dry crusts.
the music strides to challenge it
Mixing memory and desire with chalk dusk
my lessons notes read : teacher will play
Beethoven’s concerto number five
and class will express themselves freely
in writing one said can we jive

when i produce the record but now
the big sound has silenced them. Higher
and firmer , each authoritative note
Pumps the classroom up tight as a tire

LISTENING SKILL ASSESSMENT


    There are some foundation principles of language assessment were introduced. Concepts like practicality, reliability, validity, authenticity, washback, direct and indirect testing, and performative and summative assessment are by now part of your vocabulary. The day to day classroom assessment of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Since the level at which you will most frequently have the opportunity to apply principles of assessment.
    For something in the way of a focus on form in assessment. There is no such thing as a test of grammar of vocabulary that does not invoke  one or more of the separate skills of listening, speaking, reading, or writing. It is not uncommon to find little “grammar test” and “vocabulary test” in textbook, and these may be perfectly useful instrument. But responses on these quizzer are usually written, with multiple choice selectio nor fill in the blank items.
THE IMPORTANCE OF LISTENING
    One reason for this emphasis is that listening is often implied as a component of speaking. In addition, the evertly observable nature of speaking renders it more empirically measureable  then listening. But perhaps a deerper cause lies in universal biases toward speaking. A good speaker is often (unwisely) valued more highly than a good listener.
BASIC TYPES OF LISTENING
Those are four commonly identified types of listening performance,each  of which comprises a category within which to consider assessment tasks and procedures.
1.    Intensive. Listening for perception of the components (phonemes, words, intonation, discourse markers, etc.) of a larger stretch of language.
2.    Responsive. Listening to a relatively short stretch of language (a greeting, question, command, comprehension check, etc.) in order to make an equally short response.
3.    Selective. Processing stretches of discourse such as short monologues for several minutes in order to “scan” for certain information.
4.    Extensive. Listening to develope a top-down, global understanding of spoken language.

History of English Law in England and Wales


    English law is the legal system of England and Wales, and is the basis of common law, legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries and the United States except Louisiana (as opposed to civil law or pluralist systems in use in other countries). It was exported to Commonwealth countries while the British Empire was established and maintained, and it forms the basis of the jurisprudence of most of those countries. English law prior to the American Revolution is still part of the law of the United States through reception statutes, except in Louisiana, and provides the basis for many American legal traditions and policies, though it has no superseding jurisdiction.
    English law in its strictest sense applies within the jurisdiction of England and Wales. Whilst Wales now has a devolved Assembly, any legislation which that Assembly enacts is enacted in particular circumscribed policy areas defined by the Government of Wales Act 2006, other legislation of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, or by orders in council given under the authority of the 2006 Act. Furthermore that legislation is, as with any by-law made by any other body within England and Wales, interpreted by the undivided judiciary of England and Wales.
    The essence of English common law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedent (stare decisis) to the facts before them. A decision of the highest appeal court in England and Wales, the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, is binding on every other court in the hierarchy, and they will follow its directions. For example, there is no statute making murder illegal.[citation needed] It is a common law crime - so although there is no written Act of Parliament making murder illegal, it is illegal by virtue of the constitutional authority of the courts and their previous decisions. Common law can be amended or repealed by Parliament; murder, by way of example, carries a mandatory life sentence today, but had previously allowed the death penalty.
    England and Wales are constituent countries of the United Kingdom, which is a member of the European Union. Hence, EU law is a part of English law. The European Union consists mainly of countries which use civil law and so the civil law system is also in England in this form. The European Court of Justice can direct English and Welsh courts on the meaning of areas of law in which the EU has passed legislation.
    The oldest written law currently in force is the Distress Act, part of the Statute of Marlborough, 1267 (52 Hen. 3).[5] Three sections of Magna Charta, originally signed in 1215 and a landmark in the development of English law, are extant but arguably they date to the consolidation of the act in 1297.

History of English Law


    The Commentaries were long regarded as the leading work on the development of English law and played a role in the development of the American legal system. They were in fact the first methodical treatise on the common law suitable for a lay readership since at least the middle Ages. The common law of England has relied on precedent more than statute and codifications and has been far less amenable than the civil law, developed from the Roman law, to the needs of a treatise. The Commentaries were influential largely because they were in fact readable, and because they met a need. The work is as much an apologia for the legal system of the time as it is an explanation, even when the law was obscure, Blackstone sought to make it seem rational, just, and inevitable that things should be how they were.
    The Commentaries are often quoted as the definitive pre-Revolutionary source of common law by United States courts. Opinions of the Supreme Court of the United States quotes from Blackstone's work whenever they wish to engage in historical discussion that goes back that far, or farther (for example, when discussing the intent of the Framers of the Constitution). The book was famously used as the key in Benedict Arnold's book cipher, which he used to communicate secretly with his conspirator John André during their plot to betray the Continental Army during the American Revolution.   
    The Commentaries on the Laws of England are an influential 18th-century treatise on the common law of England by Sir William Blackstone, originally published by the Clarendon Press at Oxford, 1765-1769. The work is divided into four volumes, on the rights of persons, the rights of things, of private wrongs and of public wrongs.

ENGLISH LANGUAGE HISTORY


English is an Anglo-Frisian language brought to Britain in the 5th Century AD by Germanic settlers from various parts of northwest Germany. The original Old English language was subsequently influenced by two successive waves of invasion. The first was by speakers of languages in the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic family, who colonized parts of Britain in the 8th and 9th centuries.

English Language
English is a West Germanic language which is the dominant language in the United Kingdom, the United States, many Commonwealth nations including Australia, Canada, New Zealand and other former British colonies. It is the second most spoken language in the world. It is estimated that there are 380 million native speakers and 300 million who use English as a second language and a further 100 million use it as a foreign language. It is the language of science, aviation, computing, diplomacy, and tourism. It is listed as the official or co-official language of over 45 countries and is spoken extensively in other countries where it has no official status. English plays a part in the cultural, political or economic life of the following countries.

History of the English Language
    English is an Anglo-Frisian language brought to Britain in the 5th Century AD by Germanic settlers from various parts of northwest Germany. The original Old English language was subsequently influenced by two successive waves of invasion. The first was by speakers of languages in the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic family, who colonized parts of Britain in the 8th and 9th centuries. The second wave was of the Normans in the 11th century, who spoke Norman (an oil language closely related to French).

             The history of the language can be traced back to the arrival of three Germanic tribes to the British Isles during the 5th Century AD. Angles, Saxons and Jutes crossed the North Sea from what is the present day Denmark and northern Germany. The inhabitants of Britain previously spoke a Celtic language. This was quickly displaced. Most of the Celtic speakers were pushed into Wales, Cornwall and Scotland. One group migrated to the Brittany Coast of France where their descendants still speak the Celtic Language of Breton today. The Angles were named from Engle, their land of origin. Their language was called Englisc from which the word, English derives.

          It is convenient to divide English into periods—Old English (or Anglo-Saxon; to c.1150), Middle English (to c.1500), and Modern English.

MODEL DESAIN PEMBELAJARAN JEROLD E. KEMP



Model desain system pembelajaran yang dikemukakan oleh Jerold E. kemp dkk. (2001) berbentuk lingkaran atau Cycle. Menurut mereka, model berbentuk lingkaran menunjukkan adanya proses kontinyu dalam menerapkan desain system pembelajaran. Model desain system pembelajaran yang di kemukakan oleh kemp terdiri atas komponen-komponen sebagai berikut:
1.    Mengidentifikasi masalah dan menetapkan tujuan pembelajaran.
2.    Menentukan dan menganalisis karakteristik siswa.
3.    Mengidentifikasi materi dan menganalisis komponen-komponen tugas belajar yang terkait dengan pencapaian tujuan pembelajaran.
4.    Menetapkan tujuan pembelajaran khusus bagi siswa.
5.    Membuat sistematika penyampaian materi pelajaran secara sistematis dan logis.
6.    Merancang strategi pembelajaran.
7.    Menetapkan metode untuk menyampaikan materi pelajaran.
8.    Mengembangkan instrument evaluasi.
9.    Memilih sumber-sumber yang dapat mendukung aktifitas pembelajaran.
Model desain system pembelajaran memungkinkan penggunanya untuk memulai kegiatan desain dari komponen yang mana saja. Model ini tergolong dalam taksonomi model yang berorientasi pada kegiatan pembelajaran individual atau klasikal. Model ini dapat digunakan oleh guru untuk menciptakan proses pembelajaran yang berlangsung di dalam kelas secara efektif, efisien dan menarik.
Menurut Gustafson dan Branch (2002), model desain system pembelajaran yang dikemukakan oleh Kemp dkk merupakan sebuah model yang berfokus pada perencanaan kurikulum. Model dengan pendekatan trdisional ini memprioritaskan langkah dan perspektif siswa yang akan menempuh proses pembelajaran. Factor penting yang mendasari penggunaan model desain system pembelajaran kamp, yaitu:
1.    Kesiapan siswa dalam mencapai kompetensi dan tujuan pembelajaran.
2.    Strategi pembelajaran dan karakteristik siswa.
3.    Media dan sumber belajar yang tepat.
4.    Dukungan terhadap keberhasilan belajar siswa.
5.    Menentukan keberhasilan siswa dalam mencapai tujuaan pembelajaran.
6.    Revisi untuk membuat program pembelajaran yang efektif dan efisien.

Processing non-literal sentences in comprehending language

 The phrase we hear is not always reveal the meaning of each combination of words in the sentence. It often happens that the meaning of an element of A is compared with element B can not in search of the meaning of A and B. collocation between A and B rather than bring meaning but the meaning of AB is C. It Similarly, we often use what is called a metaphor, ie, a phrase which equates something (which is generally called a topic) with something else (which is called the a vehicle), although both are not the same. Old-fashioned phrases such as: bibirnya seperti delima merekah , rambutnya bagai mayang terurai and modern expression is sutan takdir adalah dewa dalam budaya dan sastra bangsa that does not have a literal meaning. We must know the delima merekah dan mayang terurai and was like what in the perception of what caused it. Similarly Sutan Alisjahbana certainly not gods. After that, then we know the intended meaning: delima merekah dan mayang terurai in the think of it beautiful, think of it being the god of wisdom who knows all, and so on. Therefore, bibir or rambut gadis is a beautiful one who knows a lot about literature  and culture of Indonesia. 
           The phrase idioms, metaphors and indirect questions like this we must also understand correctly. The question that arises is how we understand a sentence like this. The answer to this there has been no satisfactory. Some theories state that there are three stages in the processing. First we give a literal response to every word coming first. So when I heard the word trash, then all matters related to this word in our minds: {- animate}, {object}, {human} and so on. Similarly, when we hear the word tong. Then we give literal meaning to the words we hear it. In our example, we give literal meaning to the tongseng. Apparently collocation between the tong and seng, more so in the context he again ate tongseng, do not make sense. Because the knock on the interpretation of this kind then we go into the third processing stage, namely to find another meaning beyond the literal meaning of the impossible. 

Language Comprehension; The nature of understanding

In understanding the language, there are four level of language processing. Those are:
1.    Perceptual  Level
At the perceptual level, we could describe your processing activities as a series of eye movements that are used to encode the constituent letters of words, including speech sound, written symbols, and signs.
2.    Lexical Level
At the lexical level, we use the identified letters to retrieve the lexical representation of a word from permanent memory. This representation will include the meaning of the word, its spelling, its pronunciation, its part of speech, and related characteristic. In short, the representation is what we know about a word.
3.    Sentential Level
We analyze the sentence structure of the ongoing linguistic message. In this case the sentence contains two clauses, and the subordinate clauses come first. We use working memory to store the contents of the first clause while we process the second, then form some unified representation of the entire sentence.
4.    Discourse Level
We identify the context preceding and following a sentence and integrate the sentence representation with that context.

Language Comprehension; An Introduction


Comprehension occurs as the listener builds a mental representation of the information contained within the language that a speaker is using… the listener's general knowledge and level of cognitive development will have a bearing on the comprehension of the message. To generate an accurate mental representation… it means that the listener has to process the language and the concepts.
In particular, lexical knowledge can affect the perception of phonemes. A number of researchers have found evidence for interactivity in the form of lexical effects on the perception of sublexical units. Wurm and Samuel (1997), for example, reported that listeners’ knowledge of words can lead to the inhibition of certain phonemes. Samuel (1997) found additional evidence of interactivity by studying the phenomenon of phonemic restoration. This refers to the fact that listeners continue to “hear” phonemes that have been removed from the speech signal and replaced by noise. Samuel discovered that the restored phonemes produced by lexical activation lead to reliable shifts in how listeners labeled ambiguous phonemes.
If we recognize words, and perceive speech generally, via our stored memory for linguistic forms, it may also be true that we perceive aspects of the world around us, as presented to us through non-linguistic means, via our stored knowledge of the way the world works. So, we are able to address the phenomenon of ambiguity and further issues in interpretation, concentrating on how the listener arrives at a reconstruction of what the speaker wishes to communicate be.

Language and Disadvantages


There is an agreement among the linguists that there is no variety of language as inherently much better than the any other. All languages and varieties are equal. A standard of a variety is ‘better ‘ only in a social sense; it has a preferred status. It gives the users a certain social benefits, and it increases their life chances.

Bernstein and Codes

Bernstein is interested in the process of socialization, on how the children acquires  and responds a particular cultural identity. He views of the relationship between language and cultures appear to have been heavily influenced by the Whorf hypothesis. According to him, there is a serious effect for the children of the lower working class who go to the school because the elaborated code is the medium of the interaction in schooling while a child from the middle class is oriented through to language to principles as these deals with objects and persons, and accessible to the system through which knowledge is acquired.

This British sociologist believes that the English social class system does not allow the low working class easy access to the elaborated codes. Members of that class restrictedly use the code that limits the intellectual horizons of the speakers.

Black English

Black English has certain characteristics in terms of phonology, morphology and syntax. Phonologically, there are likely to be far more homophones in Black English rather than in standard varieties of the languages. In morphology, because t and d are often unpronounced, there is no clear signal of past tense. While in syntactical area, Black English has special use of be or lack of be.

One of the most interesting characteristics of Black English is above-mentioned used of the zero copula while zero copula os rarely found in the White speeches, even poor White Southerners. There is such a variety of English as Black English in the US. Those who speak it recognize that what they speak is something different from the varieties employed by most non-blacks. What is an interesting topic for sociolinguists is children from Black English are usually perceived to bring with them to school a problem that appears directly from speaking such a variety.

Some Consequences for Educations

There is a misunderstanding about Black English, in the characteristics and how it is used. Many educators interprets that Black English, especially children, are deficient in language ability. They lack ability to use language as device to acquire and process the information. In this view, Black English children suffer a verbal deprivation and it was the duty and responsibilities of educators to supply them with one.


(Further Reading: Introduction to Sociolinguistics by Ronald Wardaugh,)

Acting and Conversing


Speech Acts     
In speech acts, J.L Austin has a theory about the performative acts in which a person is not just saying something but it is actually doing something if certain real world conditions are met. He pointed out that perforamtives should met felicity conditions in order to be successful. A conventional procedures,  all participants must execute the procedures, and finally the necessary thoughts, feelings, and intentions must be present in all parties. Austin devides performatives into five categories; verdictives, exercitives, commissives, behabitives, and expositives.

On the other side, Searle argued that we can speak minimally at three kinds of acts. There are utterance acts which refers to the fact that we must utter words and sentences when we want to say anything at all, prepositional acts which refers to those matters that have to do with referring and predicitng, and illocutionary acts which refers to the intents of the speakers. As the additinon, Searle also regulates some rules in governing promise-making. Those are the propositional content, preparatory rules, sincerity rules and the essential rules.
In oppose to Austin, who concentrate his study on how the speakers realize their intentions in speaking, Searle focuses on how listeners respond to the utterances. Both Austin and Searle recognize that the people use language to achieve the variety of objectives.

Cooperation and Face; Grice and Goffman
Based on Grice’s view, it is stated that we are able to converse each other because of the recognition of common goals and the specific ways of achieving them. The acts in conversation should in line with cooperative principle, the general principle in which a mutual engagement happen between listeners and speakers. There are four maxims of cooperative principles (Grice; 1975). Those are quantity which makes the contribution as the required informatives, quality in which the belief should not be falsely said or lack adequate evidence, relation as the simple injunctions, and manner to avoid obscurity of expression and ambiguity.

In the Griece sense, a conversation is a cooperative activity depends on the speakers and listeners sharing a set of assumption. But, it is also cooperative in the sense that speakers and listeners tend to accept each other for what they claim to be, that is, the accepts of ‘face’ that the other offers. Goffman (1955) called ‘face’ as the work of presenting faces to each others, protecting our own’s face and the other’s face. In other word, ‘the affective state of the speaker’ and ‘his profile of identity’ are much the same as the idea of ‘face’.

Keadaan Pertanian di Indonesia


Pertanian merupakan fokus utama dari strategi dan prioritas pengembangan orde baru. Meskipun sektor ini tidak begitu menderita kerusakan di zaman Soekarno, dibandingkan dengan komponen ekonomi yang didasarkan perkotaan, kinerja pertanian pada periode sebelum 1966 tidak begitu mengesankan. Indonesia lamban dalam mengolah kesempatan yang muncul dari varietas panen baru yang dikenal dalam revolusi hijau, sebagian disebabkan input perdagangan sektor modern belum siap.

Sejak awal tahun 1970, paradigma pembangunan pertanian di Indonesia berubah drastis seiring perubahan paradigma pembangunan ekonomi kapitalistis yang bertumpu pada modal besar. Dalam kerangka pembangunan ekonomi saat itu, sektor pertanian tidak lagi ditempatkan sebagai fondasi ekonomi nasional, tetapi dijadikan buffer (penyangga) guna menyukseskan industrialisasi yang dijadikan lokomotif pertumbuhan ekonomi.

Sebagai penyangga, yang terpenting bagi pemerintahan Orba adalah bagaimana mendongkrak produksi pangan dalam negeri tanpa harus berbelit-belit, cepat, dan tidak berisiko secara politik. Pilihan ini sebagai antitesis program land reform di masa Orde Lama (Orla) yang dijadikan landasan utama dalam program pembangunan pertanian semesta. Kebetulan pada saat bersamaan arus global politik-ekonomi dunia memperkenalkan revolusi hijau sebagai lawan dan alternatif revolusi merah.

Orba yang sejak kelahirannya menganut ideologi ekonomi kapitalis cenderung melaksanakan pembangunan pertaniannya melalui by-pass approach (jalan pintas), yaitu revolusi hijau tanpa reformasi agraria (pembaruan agraria). Karena itu, pembangunan di Indonesia oleh Rohman Sobhan (1993) disebut sebagai development without social transition (Wiradi, 1999).

Perubahan paradigma ini menciptakan missing link dalam pelaksanaan pembangunan pertanian dari satu periode ke periode lain. Pertanian tidak lagi dipandang dalam aspek menyeluruh, tetapi direduksi sebagai sekadar persoalan produksi, teknologi, dan harga. Tanah sebagai alas pembangunan pertanian tidak dianggap sebagai faktor amat penting. Persoalan keterbatasan lahan petani yang rata-rata hanya memiliki 0,25 hektar, menurut Syaiful Bahari dari Bimas Ketahanan Pangan, dapat diatasi dengan menempuh non-land based development (Kompas, 17/1/2004), bukan dengan merombak dan menata kembali struktur penguasaan tanah yang lebih adil dan merata melalui reformasi agraria. Cara pandang seperti ini merupakan cermin jalan pintas yang mendominasi kebijakan dan strategi pembangunan pertanian sejak masa Orba hingga sekarang.

Structuralism and Ferdinand De Saussure


These influential theories of the second half of the twentieth century, all of which are focused on language, have their origins in the linguistic theory of Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913), he defines the proper object of linguistic study as the system of signs used by human beings, and the relationships of which can be studied in the abstract, or as he says “synchronicity” rather than “diachronically.” In other words, there is no reference to any particular historical implementation of that language.

According to Saussure, the basic unit of language is a sign.  A sign is composed of signifier (a sound-image, or its graphic equivalent) and a signified (the concept or meaning).  So, for example, a word composed of the letters p-e-a-r functions as a signifier by producing in the mind of English-speakers the concept (signified) of a certain kind of rosaceous fruit that grows on trees, viz., a pear.

Saussure’s way around this obvious objection is to say that his interest is in the structure of  language, not the use of language.  As a scientist, Saussure limited his investigation to the formal structure of language (langue), setting aside or bracketing the way that language is employed in actual speech (parole).  Hence, the term structuralism.  Saussure bracketed out of his investigation any concern with the real, material objects (referents) to which signs are presumably related.  This bracketing of the referent is a move that enabled him to study the way a thing (language and meaning) is experienced in the mind.  In this sense, his motivation was similar to Husserl's.  And in the end, Saussure never offered a method for investigating how language as a system hooks up to the world of objects that lie outside language.  As we shall see, this was to have far-reaching effects.

Structuralism and Claude Levi Strauss


Claude Lévi-Strauss is the best known and most influential structuralist. Because of his influence, Lévi-Strauss is an excellent example of structuralist approaches. The main influence on the work Lévi-Strauss' work is multifaceted and that he was influenced not only by other anthropologists but also by linguists, geologists and others. Lévi-Strauss brings into anthropology these and other influences which have shaped his thinking and anthropological thought through his work. The main aspects of Lévi-Strauss' work can be summarized under three headings, they are:

a)    Alliance Theory
Lévi-Strauss' theoretical contributions to social anthropology are numerous and significant. The best known of these is "alliance theory." Alliance theory stresses the importance of marriage in society as opposed to the importance of descent. Its basic supposition is that the exchange of women between groups of related men results in greater social solidarity, and that the result of this cohesion is better chances of survival for all members of the resultant kin group. Lévi-Strauss' claims that the regulating of marriages through prescription and preference and the proscription of other types of marriage creates a "exchange" of women in simple societies. This interchange, accompanied by exchanges of gifts, ensures the cooperation of the members of these groups.

His analysis of the incest taboo is fascinating. For Lévi-Strauss the link between nature and culture in humankind comes from this universal proscription. In the incest taboo nature transcends itself and creates culture as the controlling element of human behavior. Sex and other drives are regulated by culture, man has become a cultural entity.
b)    Human Mental Processes

There is unity in the way the human mind functions. Lévi-Strauss claims that, although the manifestations may be very different, the human mental processes are the same in all cultures. The unity of the mental processes results from the biology of the human brain and the way it works. As a result of this unity, e.g. the classification of the universe by "primitive man" has the same basis as when it is done by any group, it is done through models. The fact that resultant models of this classification may be different is irrelevant for him. The analysis of myth in Lévi-Strauss is also based on the premise about the unity of the human mind.

c)    Structural Analysis of Myth
Lévi-Strauss' work on myth parallels his interest in mental processes. He attempts to discover unconscious the regularities of the human mind. The use of the structuralist models of myth allows for the reduction of material studied to manageable levels. The dominant manner to accomplish this goal is based on the use of the following concepts:

1.    Surface and Deep Structure
To discover the model/structure of a myth one must explore the deep structure of a myth. The surface structure provides us with the narrative, the deep structure with an explication of the myth. This is accomplished by discovering the major binary opposition(s) in the deep structure.

2.    Binary oppositions
These occur in nature and naturally in the human mind. They are such things as night and day, left and right or nature and culture. Nature and culture often functions as a binary opposition in tales. However, depending on the tale or myth the binary opposition changes. For example, the binary opposition life and death is a useful one to explicate "Sleeping Beauty." Here, the deep structure of the story suggests that when the thirteenth fairy declares that Sleeping Beauty is to die at her fifteenth birthday that a life versus death binary opposition is posited. A mediation to solution the problem is now necessary.

3.    Mediation
A binary opposition can be mediated by finding a solution to the opposition created by the binary. The mediation to the culture/nature binary opposition is that culture transcends nature. In the case of "Sleeping Beauty" the nature of the mediation is quite different but equally embedded in within the subject matter. Here the life versus death binary opposition is mediated by the twelve fairy's action: death is transformed into one hundred years sleep.

Machine Translation in the World and Indonesia


A.    Machine Translation In America
USA is the most productive and consumptive country of MT. Since 1950 year, this country had already had thirty-two groups of MT researcher. Moreover, the first using demonstration of MT was also done in this country. As the result, the number of the MT research centre is significantly increasing every year. US has produced many MT programs, those are:
1. SYSTRAN
     It is the oldest MT program that is mostly applied since 1990 year. This direct system is designed by Peter Toma through Gachot Company. SYSTRAN is used by General Motor (Canada), Xerox (Manual Techniques translation), national company of train production (Germany), and the research study centre of nuclear energy.
2. SPANAM and ENGSPAN
    This program is produced by Pan America Health Organization (PAHO) for translating the medical and health documents. ENGSPAN uses the transfer system by primarily rely the syntaxes lexical transfer process and semantics analysis, while SPANAM uses the direct system.
3. Smart Expert Editor (MAX) and Smart Translator (SMART)
MAX and SMART is designed by Smart Communication Inc. MAX uses the ‘rule-based’ system and ‘terminology knowledge based’. Whereas, SMART functions the limited language input (Caterpillar English) and is used to translate the documents into some languages.
Since 1990’s year those programs had been applied by 30 client including Citicorp, Chase, Ford, General Electric, and The Labor Department of Canada (for translating the information of job vacancy from English to France).
4. LOGOS
LOGOS program is designed by Logos Corporation in 1982. At first, this transfer system program is designed for translating Germany to English, but it is also developed fot another language; English-France (in Canada), English-Spain and Germany-France (in Belgian).
LOGOS bilingual dictionary consists of more than 100.000 entries and is completed by the additional entry facility for another word, except verb. Verb is cannot be added because the additional verb needs the complex coding process and it can influence the entire efficiency of the program.
LOGOS has been used by some incorporation such as Ericsson, Osram, Oce Technolog, SAP, Corel etc.
5. METAL
METAL Program is firstly developed in Texas University, but after 1978, it got full sponsor from Siemen Inc. (Germany). METAL uses the transfer system (it is also known as the best adopting program of transfer system in the world) and completed by monolingual and bilingual dictionary. This is a high speed program which can translate until 200 pages per day, by a little post-editing. Post-editing is done by PC workstation. In the output, the user can choose to get the result in two or just one language.
This program is used by some incorporation, such as Boehringer Ingelheim, SAP, Philips and Union Bank of Switzerland.
6. The Products of Carneige Mellon University (CMU)
    CMU has become the central research of MT based on intelligence BUATAN and the biggest Interlingua in USA. One of the products is Knowledge-Based Machine Translation (KBMT), which is based on the assumption that the ideal translating process is not done in linguistics rules only but also including understanding.
B.    Machine Translation in Europe
MT also grows well in the west Europe. Besides the existing of Eurotra project which is handled by European society, some of the countries also do the development of MT separately. Those countries are Germany, Dutch, France, England, Denmark, Ireland, Belgian, Switzerland, and the Scandinavian countries.

1.    Eurotra
Eurotra is the biggest MT project in Europe and even in the world. This project started in 1978 by two aims; making the prototype of MT program for European languages (England, France, Germany, Italy, Latin, Dutch, Denmark, Spain and Portugal) and developing MT skill and the related area of it.
The project centered in University of Essex and University of Manchester Institute of Science MELIBATKAN more than 100 researcher spread in 16 location; Belgian, Denmark, France, Germany, Dutch, Yunnan, Ireland, Italy and Luxemburg.

2.    Germany
SUSY is a program made by Germany. This program is developed by Saarbrucken University. It is used the syntax orientation system transfer. There are many other programs, such as ASCOF, SAFRAN, MARIS, SUSANNAH, TITRAN, etc.
Germany is also developed MT for translating spoken language. This program is called VERMOBIL and funded by The Reset and Technology Ministry of German.

3.    Dutch
MT with Interlingua system had been developed in Dutch in the 1980. There are two famous programs, DLT (Distributed Language Translation) and Rosseta Project. DLT program uses Esperanto as the interlingua, while Rosseta uses innovative exploration of isoformic principles to build the interlingua representation and integration of Montague semantics principles.
Besides that, there is a specific MT program in Dutch. This program is designed by Volmac Lingware Service Software Inc and mostly uses in the textile factory, insurance agency and the airplane center care. This program is translating Dutch, English, French, and Spain languages.

4.    France
The development of MT in French produces such as ARIANE system. This system uses transfer system which is oriented in syntax by the analysis process and generation which happens in every level (morphologist, syntaxes and semantics), it also uses the pragmatic principle and discourse information. Ariane also has been known as the best system transfer beside METAL.

5.    England
England also becomes the center of another MT system beside becomes the center of EUROTRA. Some of the products are prototype program of translating England-Germany called NTRAN. This program uses the concept of Lexical Functional Grammar for parsing process (bottom-up), transfer, and others.
England also provides AIDTRANS (using the direct system which translates Germany to English), SLUNT (using Interlingua system), TRANSPO, ICL (International Computer Ltd., translates the text messages in English-France and England-Germany), and others.
6.    Denmark
      In the 1988, The Winger software Incorporation developed MT for English, Denmark and Spain translation. The program made by many linguists from Kopenhagen University integrates MT with words manufacturing, database and communication system. This program is published in Europe and America.
C.    Machine Translation in Asia
Japan is the most MAJU in MT development among others Asian countries. Moreover, in the beginning of MT publication, Japan had already had two MT research centers. It the other words, Japan’s progressivity in developing MT is equal and even for some models, it is higher than western countries.
Through the project funded by the government and other SWASTA institutions, Japan has produced many MT programs. Those are:
1.   Mu program (system transfer using) developed by Kyoto University.
2.  PIVOT program produced by NEC. This Interlingua system program translates English, Japan, Korean, French, and Spain.
3. ARGO program developed by CSK Tokyo. This is used for translating economic and finance text in English and Japan.
4.   NHK system is used for translating the report articles from English to Japan.
5.   RMT/EJ program, Duet Qt, STAR, Meltran, ASTRANSAC, HICATS, PENSEE, LUTE and many others.
    Beside Japan, Korean is also the country which actively developing MT. Since 1980’s year, the research in Korea is supported by the government and four universities (Seoul, Inha, Hanyang, and Graduate School of KAIST). Some of Korean MT products are HESS (Hangul-English support system) which is used by Korean military for translating database information, e-mail, and etc. MATES, the program developed by System Engineering Research Institute (SERI), is also provided. This transfer system program translates English language into Korean Language.
    In China, the high MINAT about MP research had already been happened since 1950, but this activity temporally stopped in 1960’s year due to the political reason.
    In Malaysia, MT developing project began in the 1979 by MELIBATKAN the researcher of Grenoble and Science University of Malaysia. They developed England-Malay Mt which can be used for translating technique course for middle school. The test done in 1985 for translating the chemistry text book showed that 70% of the translating results can be understood.
D. Machine Translation in Indonesia
    The efforts for MT development in Indonesia are: (1) holding the Linguistics Symposium and Computer Technology in Jakarta in the 26 and 27 of October 1986, (2) the International Trade Ministry and Japan Industry had MEMPRAKARSAI a research project for developing multilingual translating system which can translate Japan language into some Asian languages, including Indonesia, and SEBALIKNYA, (3) the informatics engineering student of ITB through Graphs Laboratory and Intelligence BUATAN also had developed a natural processing program by machine, (3) developing STAJASIA, the question answer system which is able to process the simple Indonesian sentences; declarative, imperative, and interrogative,  (5) TransTool Research and Development had developed translation computer program named TransTool. This programs translates Indonesian text into English text and SEBALIKNYA.
    Some of Indonesian translating product are:
1. ABP System
    It is used as translation instrument that can retrieve some source and target languages.
2. TransTool
     It was produced by the TransTool Research and Development. The form of this machine physically is put in the CD (Compact Disc) that needs to be installed to activate this application. This application requires a hardware and software instrument to facilitate its use. It was functioned to translate word, phrase, sentence and paragraph conversely. However, TransTool effectiveness is much influenced by the computer processor capacity.
3. Artinya MT 2.1
    It is an one-line machine translation program. It was developed in 1998 by PS & B Software. The user who wants to use it should download this application in the internet. Nowadays, this type of machine is divided into two terms: free version and paid version. It uses an ‘indirect’ system which is compose by some features like spelling checkers, updatable dictionary, translation statistics, and so on.
4. Universal Translation
    It was created by Language Force. It was in CD form and was completed by editing and some other facilities. It is used to translate from English to the other target languages.
5. MuST System
    This MT was produced by Edward Hovy and Friends. It is a kind of instrument that picking out the document from the multilingual source and translating or summarizing the text into the target language.
6. Stajasia
    It is an asking-answering program released by BPPT.



Analysis of the lexical meaning of An Original Soundtrack of Little Mermaid Movie titled ‘Under The Sea’


A.    The Song Lyrics
Listen it
We’re the animal sea
Check it out
The seaweed is always greener
In somebody else's lake
You dream about going up there
But that is a big mistake
Just look at the world around you
Right here on the ocean  floor
Such wonderful things surround you
What more is you lookin' for?

Under the sea (2x)
Darling it's better
Down where it's wetter
Take it from me
Up on the shore they work all day
Out in the sun they slave away
While we devotin'
Full time to floatin'
Under the sea

Down here all the fish are happy
As off through the waves they roll
The fish on the land ain't happy
Being the slave of the chef
And chef has been prepared the cooking and dining set   
They sad 'cause they’re  in their bowl
But fish in the bowl is lucky
They in for a worser fate
One day when the boss get hungry
Guess who's gonna  be on the plate

Under the sea (2x)
Nobody beat us
Fry  us and eat us
In fricassee
We what the land folks loves to cook
Under the sea we off the hook
We got no troubles (difficult situation, worry)
We got no problems
Life is the bubbles
Under the sea
Under the sea
Since life is sweet here
We got the beat here
Naturally
Even the sturgeon an' the ray
They get the urge  'n' start to play
We got the spirit
You got to hear it
Under the sea

Oh, yeah…prepare your musical instrument!
The newt play the flute
The carp play the harp
The plaice play the bass
And they soundin' sharp
The bass  play the brass
The chub play the tuba
The fluke is the duke of soul
(Yeah)
The ray he can play
The lings on the strings
The trout  rockin' out
The blackfish  she sings
The smelt  and the sprat
They know where it's at
An' oh that blowfish blow

Under the sea (2x)
When the sardine
Begin the beguine
It's music to me
What do they got? Too lot of sand
we got a hot crustacean band
Each little clam here
know how to jam here
Under the sea
Each little slug here
Cuttin' a rug here
Under the sea
Each little snail here
Know how to wail here
That's why it's too hot
Under the water
Ya we in luck here
Down in the muck here
Under the sea

B.    The Analysis
1.    Denotation
Denotation is the meaning of word which is primarily refers to the real world and this is often the definition that is given in dictionary.

2.    Connotation
Connotation arise as words become related with certain characteristic of item to which they refer, or the association of positive or negative feelings to which they evokes, which may or may not be indicated in the dictionary definition. The positive connotation in the lyrics is ‘muck’, in the lyric ‘Down in the muck here’, the dictionary definition of ‘muck’is ‘the condition that is unpleasant’, but here the meaning of ‘muck’ is the condition which even live under the sea with all creatures there is very noisy but it makes them happy because they always have fun together.

3.    Ambiguity
     A word or a sentence is ambiguous if it can be undrstood or interpreted in more than one way (Fromkin et.al, 1990). The different words having same form or pronunciation may cause ambiguity among listeners or readers who do not pay attention to their context carefully. Among the different words having same form or pronunciation are:
a.     Homonyms (different words having same form)
·    slave ( a person who is legally owned by another person)
       slave (work very hard)   
·    bass (an electric guitar that plays very low note)
   bass ( a sea or freshwater fish that is used for food)
·    slave ( a person who is legally owned by another person)
slave (work very hard)   
·    bass (an electric guitar that plays very low note)
bass ( a sea or freshwater fish that is used for food)
b.    Homophones (different word which are pronounced the same)
·    To (used before the base form of a verb to show that the verb is the infinitive. The infinitive is used after many verbs and also many nouns and adjectives)
        Too (used before adjectives and adverbs to say that sth is more that is good, necessary,   possible)

4.    Antonym
The word antonym derives from the Greek root anti- (‘opposite’) and denotes oposition in meaning. In contrast to synonymy and hyponymy, antonymy is a binary relationship that can characterize a relationship between only two words at a time. Terms A and B are antonyms if, when A describes a referent, B cannot describe the same referent, and vice versa. The antonyms found in this song lyrics are:
·    happy (feeling or showing pleasure) >< sad (uhappy or showing unhappiness)
·    up (moving upwards) >< down (to force something down)
·    land (the surface of the earth that is not  sea) >< sea (the salt water that covers most of the earth’s surface and surrounds its continents and island)   

5.    Synonym
Two words are said to be synonymous if they mean the same thing. To addres the notion of synonymy more formally, we can say that term A is synonymous with term B if every referrent of A is a referent of B and vice versa. The synonyms found in this song lyrics are:
·    listen = hear (to be away of sounds by your ears or to pay attention to somebody/something that you can hear)
·    ocean = sea (the mass of salt water that covers most of the earth’s surface and surrounds its continents and island)
·    troubles = problems (difficult situation, worry)   
·    slug = snail (a small soft creature, with or without a hard round shell on its back, that moves very slowly and often eats garden plants )



6.    Hyponymy
A hyponym is a subordinate, specific term whose referent is included in the referent of a superordinate term and the relationship between each of the lower term (hyponym) and the higher term (superordinate) is called hyponymy.
·    cook (to prepare food by heating it, for example by boliling, baking or frying it) is superordinate of fry (to cook something in hot fat or oil)
·    fish is superordinate of :
a.    sturgeon (a large sea and freshwater fish that lives in nothern region . Strurgeon are used for foods and the eggs (called caviar) are also eaten)
b.    ray ( a seafish with a large broad flat body and long tail that is used for food)
c.   carp (a large freshwater fish that is used for the food)
d.   plaice ( a flat sea fish that is used for food)
e.   bass ( a sea or freshwater fish that is used for food)
f.    chub (a freshwater fish with athick body)
g.   fluke (a flat fish)
h.   ray ( a sea fish with a large broad flat body and long tail that is used for food)
i.    trout (a common freshwater fish that is used for food. There are several types of trout: rainbow trout, trour fishing)
j.    blackfish (a fish in a black coloured)
k.   smelt (a small fish bait)
l.    blowfish
n.   sprat (a very small European sea fish that is used for food)
o.   sardine (a small young sea fish that is either eaten fresh or preserved in tins/cans)
·    animal is superordinate of:
a.    fish (sturgeon, ray, carp, plaice, bass, chub,  fluke, ray, trout, blackfish, smelt blowfish, sprat, sardine)
b.    crustacean (any creature with a soft body that is divided into sections, and a hard outer shell. Most crustaceans live in water)
c.    clam (a shellfish that can be eaten. It has a shell in two parts that can open and close) 
d.    slug (a small soft creature, a snail with without a shell, that moves very slowly and often eats garden plants )
e.    snail (a small soft creature with a hard round shell on its back, that moves very slowly and often eats garden plants)
f.    newt (a small animal with short legs, a long tail and a cold blood, that lives both in water and on land)
·    dining set is superordinate of:
a.    bowl (a deep round dish with a wide open top, used specially for holding food or liquid)
b.    plate (a flat, usually round, dish that you put on)   
·    musical instrument is superordinate of:
a.    flute ( a musical instrument of the wood-wind group shaped like a tin pipe. The player holds it sideways and blows across a hole at one end)
b.    bass (an electric guitar that plays very low note)
      c.    harp (a large musical instrument with strings streched on vertical frame, played with the fingers)
d.    brass (the musical instrument made of metals, such as trumpets or french horns, that form a band or section of an orchestra)
e.    tuba ( a large brass musical instrument that you play by blowing, and that produces low notes)

7.  Polysemy
Polysemy (or multiple meaning) is a property of single lexemes; and this is what differentiates it, in principles, from homonymy.

EYL; Characteristics of Young Learner


     The art of teaching is essentially an art to evoke the natural curiosity of young minds (Anatole France, 20th century).

Young Learners (YLs) refer to children from the ages of four to twelve. Increasingly, though, children as young as three are being formally introduced to English as a foreign language. According to Sarah Phillips (1993), young learners are children from the first year of formal schooling (five or six years old) to eleven or twelve years of age. However, as any children's teacher will know, it is not so much the children's age that counts in the classroom as how mature they are. There are many factors that influence children's maturity: for example, their culture and environment (city or rural), sex, the expectations of their peers and parents.

Young children do not come to the language classroom with empty hand. They bring a well-established set of instincts, skills and characteristics which will help them to learn another language. We need to identify those and make the most of them. For example, children characteristics are curious, outspoken, active, inquisitive nature, and like to move around.
While they are skilled in:
- being very good at interpreting meaning without necessarily understanding the      individual words;
- having great ability in using limited language creatively;
- frequently learning indirectly rather than directly;
- taking great pleasure in finding and creating fun in which they do;
- creating  a ready imagination.
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