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Contoh RPP Bahasa Inggris SMP Berkarakter

Contoh RPP Berkarakter

Contoh RPP Bahasa Inggris SMP Berkarakter - Salah satu perangkat pembelajaran yang harus disiapakan oleh seorang guru adalah RPP alias Rancangan Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran. RPP adalah rencana yang menjelaskan bagaimana proses pembelajaran akan berlangsung dan dapat berjalan dengan baik sehingga kompetensi dasar yang harus dikuasai siswa bisa tercapai. 

Di dalam RPP, ada beberapa komponen, yaitu Standar Kompetensi, Kompetensi Dasar, Indikator, TUjuan Pembelajaran, Kegiatan Pembelajaran, Sumber belajar, model pembelajaran, alokasi waktu, dan lain-lain. Beberapa tahun belakangan, ada satu lagi komponen yang ditambahkan dalam RPP, yaitu indicator berkarakter sesuai dengan jenis RPP sekarang yang terbaru adalah RPP berkarakter. Nah untuk lebih lengkapnya, silahkan melihat langsung contoh dari RPP berkarakter khusus SMP di bawah ini


    There are some foundation principles of language assessment were introduced. Concepts like practicality, reliability, validity, authenticity, washback, direct and indirect testing, and performative and summative assessment are by now part of your vocabulary. The day to day classroom assessment of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Since the level at which you will most frequently have the opportunity to apply principles of assessment.
    For something in the way of a focus on form in assessment. There is no such thing as a test of grammar of vocabulary that does not invoke  one or more of the separate skills of listening, speaking, reading, or writing. It is not uncommon to find little “grammar test” and “vocabulary test” in textbook, and these may be perfectly useful instrument. But responses on these quizzer are usually written, with multiple choice selectio nor fill in the blank items.
    One reason for this emphasis is that listening is often implied as a component of speaking. In addition, the evertly observable nature of speaking renders it more empirically measureable  then listening. But perhaps a deerper cause lies in universal biases toward speaking. A good speaker is often (unwisely) valued more highly than a good listener.
Those are four commonly identified types of listening performance,each  of which comprises a category within which to consider assessment tasks and procedures.
1.    Intensive. Listening for perception of the components (phonemes, words, intonation, discourse markers, etc.) of a larger stretch of language.
2.    Responsive. Listening to a relatively short stretch of language (a greeting, question, command, comprehension check, etc.) in order to make an equally short response.
3.    Selective. Processing stretches of discourse such as short monologues for several minutes in order to “scan” for certain information.
4.    Extensive. Listening to develope a top-down, global understanding of spoken language.

History of English Law in England and Wales

    English law is the legal system of England and Wales, and is the basis of common law, legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries and the United States except Louisiana (as opposed to civil law or pluralist systems in use in other countries). It was exported to Commonwealth countries while the British Empire was established and maintained, and it forms the basis of the jurisprudence of most of those countries. English law prior to the American Revolution is still part of the law of the United States through reception statutes, except in Louisiana, and provides the basis for many American legal traditions and policies, though it has no superseding jurisdiction.
    English law in its strictest sense applies within the jurisdiction of England and Wales. Whilst Wales now has a devolved Assembly, any legislation which that Assembly enacts is enacted in particular circumscribed policy areas defined by the Government of Wales Act 2006, other legislation of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, or by orders in council given under the authority of the 2006 Act. Furthermore that legislation is, as with any by-law made by any other body within England and Wales, interpreted by the undivided judiciary of England and Wales.
    The essence of English common law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedent (stare decisis) to the facts before them. A decision of the highest appeal court in England and Wales, the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, is binding on every other court in the hierarchy, and they will follow its directions. For example, there is no statute making murder illegal.[citation needed] It is a common law crime - so although there is no written Act of Parliament making murder illegal, it is illegal by virtue of the constitutional authority of the courts and their previous decisions. Common law can be amended or repealed by Parliament; murder, by way of example, carries a mandatory life sentence today, but had previously allowed the death penalty.
    England and Wales are constituent countries of the United Kingdom, which is a member of the European Union. Hence, EU law is a part of English law. The European Union consists mainly of countries which use civil law and so the civil law system is also in England in this form. The European Court of Justice can direct English and Welsh courts on the meaning of areas of law in which the EU has passed legislation.
    The oldest written law currently in force is the Distress Act, part of the Statute of Marlborough, 1267 (52 Hen. 3).[5] Three sections of Magna Charta, originally signed in 1215 and a landmark in the development of English law, are extant but arguably they date to the consolidation of the act in 1297.

History of English Law

    The Commentaries were long regarded as the leading work on the development of English law and played a role in the development of the American legal system. They were in fact the first methodical treatise on the common law suitable for a lay readership since at least the middle Ages. The common law of England has relied on precedent more than statute and codifications and has been far less amenable than the civil law, developed from the Roman law, to the needs of a treatise. The Commentaries were influential largely because they were in fact readable, and because they met a need. The work is as much an apologia for the legal system of the time as it is an explanation, even when the law was obscure, Blackstone sought to make it seem rational, just, and inevitable that things should be how they were.
    The Commentaries are often quoted as the definitive pre-Revolutionary source of common law by United States courts. Opinions of the Supreme Court of the United States quotes from Blackstone's work whenever they wish to engage in historical discussion that goes back that far, or farther (for example, when discussing the intent of the Framers of the Constitution). The book was famously used as the key in Benedict Arnold's book cipher, which he used to communicate secretly with his conspirator John AndrĂ© during their plot to betray the Continental Army during the American Revolution.   
    The Commentaries on the Laws of England are an influential 18th-century treatise on the common law of England by Sir William Blackstone, originally published by the Clarendon Press at Oxford, 1765-1769. The work is divided into four volumes, on the rights of persons, the rights of things, of private wrongs and of public wrongs.

Kelebihan dan Kekurangan Multiple Choice Test

            Setiap bentuk tes yang akan digunakan sebagai alat evaluasi masing-masing selalu mempunyai kelebihan dan kekurangan dalam penggunaannya. Untuk bentuk     Multiple Choice Test pun terdapat kelebihan dan kekurangan yang akan ditemui.

            Di antara kelebihan-kelebihan yang dimiliki Multiple Choice Item Test, ialah:

1)   Tes obyektif sifatnya lebih representatif dalam hal mencakup dan mewakili materi yang telah diajarkan kepada peserta didik. Hal ini dapat dipahami dengan melihat kenyataan bahwa butir-butir soal yang dikeluarkan dalam bentuk tes objektif itu jumlahnya cukup banyak.

2)   Dari soal yang banyak tersebut, maka berbagai aspek psikologis yang seharusnya diungkap lewat tes hasil belajar, seperti aspek pengetahuan, aspek pemahaman, aplikasi, analisis, sintesis dan lain-lain, dapat dicakup dan diungkap secara lengkap melalui tes hasil belajar tersebut.

3)   Tes objektif lebih memungkinkan badi tester untuk bertindak lebih objektif, baik dalam mengoreksi lembar-lembar maupun dalam menentukan nilai hasil tesnya. Ini dapat dipahami karena jawaban yang akan muncul hanya ada dua yakni, betul atau salah. Disamping itu, akan mengurangi adanya faktor lain seperti dari baik atau buruknya bentuk tulisan testee yang bisa saja memberi pengaruh pada pengoreksian.

4)   Mengoreksi hasil Multiple Choice Item Test adalah jauh lebih mudah dan lebih cepat dibandingkan bentuk tes lain. Ini disebabkan karena tersedianya pilihan jawaban yang sederhana antara A, B, C, D, atau E, sehingga pekerjaan koreksi, perhitungan dan penjumlahan skor hasil tes dapat dilakukan dalam waktu yang singkat.

5)   Dalam pengoreksiannya dapat diwakilkan pada orang lain, dengan bekal kunci jawaban saja. Bahkan lebih dari itu, dengan lembar jawaban yang sudah dipersiapkan, pekerjaan mengoreksi dapat dilakukan dengan bantuan komputer, sehingga dapat meminimalisir kesalahan dalam pengoreksian.

6)   Butir-butir soal jauh lebih mudah dianalisis dari segi kesukarannya, daya pembedanya, validitas meupun reliabilitasnya. Berdasar hasil analisis yang pada umumnya menggunakan statistik sebagai alat bantunya, akan dapat ditentukan tingga rendahnya mutu tes, disamping dapat diusahakan perbaikan-perbaikan dan penyempurnaanya, sehingga dari waktu-ke waktu butir soal tes objektif dapat ditingkaktkan mutunya dan dapat dijalankan fungsinya sebagai alat ukur hasil belajar yang baik, dan dapaat digunakan berulang-ulang.

Adapun segi-segi kekurangan yang dimiliki Multiple Choice Item Tes antara lain:

1)   Dalam penyusunan butir-butir soal tes objektif adalah tidak semudah seperti halnya tes uraian. Buaka karena jumlah butir soalnya yang cukup banyak, menyiapkan kemungkinan jawabaan yang akan dipasangkan pada setiap butir item itu juga bukan hal yang ringan.

2)   Multiple Choice Item Test pada umumnya kurang dapat mengukur atau mengunkap proses berpikir yang tinggi atau mendalam. Ia lebih banyak mengungkap daya ingat atau hafalan ketimbang daripada mengungkap tingkat kedalaman berpikir testee terhadap materi yang diujikan. Kelemahan ini terutama disebabkan pada pilihan jawaban yang pendek-pendek, hingga testee tidak terlalu dituntut untuk berpikir secara mendalam.

3)   Dengan Multiple Choice Item Test, terbuka kemungkinan bagi testee untuk bermain spekulasi, tebak terka, adu untung dalam memberikan jawaban. Kalau saja jawaban dari asal tebak tersebut betul, maka tes tersebut akan menjadi alat pengukur yang diragukan daya ketepatan mengukurnya.

4)   Cara memberikan jawaban pada Multiple Choice Item Test yang mempergunakan simbol A, B, C, D dan E yang sifatnya seragam dapat membuka peluang bagi testee untuk melakukan kerjasama yang tidak sehat dengan sesama testee lainnya. Hal ini dapat mengakibatkan terjadinya kekeliruan dalam pengukuran dan penilaian hasil belajar.

Sudiyono, Anas. Pengantar Evaluasi Pendidikan. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada. 1996.

Slameto. Evaluasi Pendidikan. Jakarta: Bina Aksara. 1984.


English is an Anglo-Frisian language brought to Britain in the 5th Century AD by Germanic settlers from various parts of northwest Germany. The original Old English language was subsequently influenced by two successive waves of invasion. The first was by speakers of languages in the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic family, who colonized parts of Britain in the 8th and 9th centuries.

English Language
English is a West Germanic language which is the dominant language in the United Kingdom, the United States, many Commonwealth nations including Australia, Canada, New Zealand and other former British colonies. It is the second most spoken language in the world. It is estimated that there are 380 million native speakers and 300 million who use English as a second language and a further 100 million use it as a foreign language. It is the language of science, aviation, computing, diplomacy, and tourism. It is listed as the official or co-official language of over 45 countries and is spoken extensively in other countries where it has no official status. English plays a part in the cultural, political or economic life of the following countries.

History of the English Language
    English is an Anglo-Frisian language brought to Britain in the 5th Century AD by Germanic settlers from various parts of northwest Germany. The original Old English language was subsequently influenced by two successive waves of invasion. The first was by speakers of languages in the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic family, who colonized parts of Britain in the 8th and 9th centuries. The second wave was of the Normans in the 11th century, who spoke Norman (an oil language closely related to French).

             The history of the language can be traced back to the arrival of three Germanic tribes to the British Isles during the 5th Century AD. Angles, Saxons and Jutes crossed the North Sea from what is the present day Denmark and northern Germany. The inhabitants of Britain previously spoke a Celtic language. This was quickly displaced. Most of the Celtic speakers were pushed into Wales, Cornwall and Scotland. One group migrated to the Brittany Coast of France where their descendants still speak the Celtic Language of Breton today. The Angles were named from Engle, their land of origin. Their language was called Englisc from which the word, English derives.

          It is convenient to divide English into periods—Old English (or Anglo-Saxon; to c.1150), Middle English (to c.1500), and Modern English.

Processing non-literal sentences in comprehending language

 The phrase we hear is not always reveal the meaning of each combination of words in the sentence. It often happens that the meaning of an element of A is compared with element B can not in search of the meaning of A and B. collocation between A and B rather than bring meaning but the meaning of AB is C. It Similarly, we often use what is called a metaphor, ie, a phrase which equates something (which is generally called a topic) with something else (which is called the a vehicle), although both are not the same. Old-fashioned phrases such as: bibirnya seperti delima merekah , rambutnya bagai mayang terurai and modern expression is sutan takdir adalah dewa dalam budaya dan sastra bangsa that does not have a literal meaning. We must know the delima merekah dan mayang terurai and was like what in the perception of what caused it. Similarly Sutan Alisjahbana certainly not gods. After that, then we know the intended meaning: delima merekah dan mayang terurai in the think of it beautiful, think of it being the god of wisdom who knows all, and so on. Therefore, bibir or rambut gadis is a beautiful one who knows a lot about literature  and culture of Indonesia. 
           The phrase idioms, metaphors and indirect questions like this we must also understand correctly. The question that arises is how we understand a sentence like this. The answer to this there has been no satisfactory. Some theories state that there are three stages in the processing. First we give a literal response to every word coming first. So when I heard the word trash, then all matters related to this word in our minds: {- animate}, {object}, {human} and so on. Similarly, when we hear the word tong. Then we give literal meaning to the words we hear it. In our example, we give literal meaning to the tongseng. Apparently collocation between the tong and seng, more so in the context he again ate tongseng, do not make sense. Because the knock on the interpretation of this kind then we go into the third processing stage, namely to find another meaning beyond the literal meaning of the impossible. 

Language Comprehension; The nature of understanding

In understanding the language, there are four level of language processing. Those are:
1.    Perceptual  Level
At the perceptual level, we could describe your processing activities as a series of eye movements that are used to encode the constituent letters of words, including speech sound, written symbols, and signs.
2.    Lexical Level
At the lexical level, we use the identified letters to retrieve the lexical representation of a word from permanent memory. This representation will include the meaning of the word, its spelling, its pronunciation, its part of speech, and related characteristic. In short, the representation is what we know about a word.
3.    Sentential Level
We analyze the sentence structure of the ongoing linguistic message. In this case the sentence contains two clauses, and the subordinate clauses come first. We use working memory to store the contents of the first clause while we process the second, then form some unified representation of the entire sentence.
4.    Discourse Level
We identify the context preceding and following a sentence and integrate the sentence representation with that context.

Structuralism and Ferdinand De Saussure

These influential theories of the second half of the twentieth century, all of which are focused on language, have their origins in the linguistic theory of Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913), he defines the proper object of linguistic study as the system of signs used by human beings, and the relationships of which can be studied in the abstract, or as he says “synchronicity” rather than “diachronically.” In other words, there is no reference to any particular historical implementation of that language.

According to Saussure, the basic unit of language is a sign.  A sign is composed of signifier (a sound-image, or its graphic equivalent) and a signified (the concept or meaning).  So, for example, a word composed of the letters p-e-a-r functions as a signifier by producing in the mind of English-speakers the concept (signified) of a certain kind of rosaceous fruit that grows on trees, viz., a pear.

Saussure’s way around this obvious objection is to say that his interest is in the structure of  language, not the use of language.  As a scientist, Saussure limited his investigation to the formal structure of language (langue), setting aside or bracketing the way that language is employed in actual speech (parole).  Hence, the term structuralism.  Saussure bracketed out of his investigation any concern with the real, material objects (referents) to which signs are presumably related.  This bracketing of the referent is a move that enabled him to study the way a thing (language and meaning) is experienced in the mind.  In this sense, his motivation was similar to Husserl's.  And in the end, Saussure never offered a method for investigating how language as a system hooks up to the world of objects that lie outside language.  As we shall see, this was to have far-reaching effects.

Studying English in an English-speaking country is the best but not the only way to learn the language

In this global era, English is considered as an international communication media. There is a dozen of ways to facilitate us in studying English, one of which is by studying in an English-speaking country like America or British.

For some people, it is likely adequate to study English in a short course for several months as long as they are willing to work hard. All they need to do here are about practice. They do not have to wait for the chance to go abroad comes in order to practice speaking English only. There are a lot of people who can speak English fluently without going to the English-native country, so basically studying English according to them is not something so complicated because it can be applied everywhere as the fact that English language has widely been used in most countries.

However, since the language is not only a fluent speaking but also a cultural understanding, to study English in native-speaking country is still much better because it will give the students a more natural atmosphere in the process of language acquisition. The native environment will bring an ease to the students in learning English. They will know how to apply an accepted language in interacting with the society.

As the conclusion, although there are many ways to study English but studying this language in an English-speaking country is the best because it has a natural environment supporting the process of English learning.

Lexical Meaning

Discussing about lexical meaning, there is a currently growing interest in the content of lexical entries from a theoretical perspective as well as a growing need to understand the organization of the lexicon in a text. Lexical semantics has boomed in the meantime. In terms of the structure or detail, lexical semantic research has developed over than twenty years long.

Generally, lexical meaning is the meaning of a word in relation to the physical world or to abstract concepts, without reference to any sentence in which the word may occur. In the other words, it is a linguistic theory that investigates word meaning. This theory understands that the meaning of a word is fully reflected by its context. Here, the meaning of a word is constituted by its contextual relations. Therefore, a distinction between degrees of participation as well as modes of participation are made.. In order to accomplish this distinction any part of a sentence that bears a meaning and combines with the meanings of other constituents is labeled as a semantic constituent. Semantic constituents that can not be broken down into more elementary constituents is labeled a minimal semantic constituent.

Analysis of the lexical meaning of An Original Soundtrack of Little Mermaid Movie titled ‘Under The Sea’

A.    The Song Lyrics
Listen it
We’re the animal sea
Check it out
The seaweed is always greener
In somebody else's lake
You dream about going up there
But that is a big mistake
Just look at the world around you
Right here on the ocean  floor
Such wonderful things surround you
What more is you lookin' for?

Under the sea (2x)
Darling it's better
Down where it's wetter
Take it from me
Up on the shore they work all day
Out in the sun they slave away
While we devotin'
Full time to floatin'
Under the sea

Down here all the fish are happy
As off through the waves they roll
The fish on the land ain't happy
Being the slave of the chef
And chef has been prepared the cooking and dining set   
They sad 'cause they’re  in their bowl
But fish in the bowl is lucky
They in for a worser fate
One day when the boss get hungry
Guess who's gonna  be on the plate

Under the sea (2x)
Nobody beat us
Fry  us and eat us
In fricassee
We what the land folks loves to cook
Under the sea we off the hook
We got no troubles (difficult situation, worry)
We got no problems
Life is the bubbles
Under the sea
Under the sea
Since life is sweet here
We got the beat here
Even the sturgeon an' the ray
They get the urge  'n' start to play
We got the spirit
You got to hear it
Under the sea

Oh, yeah…prepare your musical instrument!
The newt play the flute
The carp play the harp
The plaice play the bass
And they soundin' sharp
The bass  play the brass
The chub play the tuba
The fluke is the duke of soul
The ray he can play
The lings on the strings
The trout  rockin' out
The blackfish  she sings
The smelt  and the sprat
They know where it's at
An' oh that blowfish blow

Under the sea (2x)
When the sardine
Begin the beguine
It's music to me
What do they got? Too lot of sand
we got a hot crustacean band
Each little clam here
know how to jam here
Under the sea
Each little slug here
Cuttin' a rug here
Under the sea
Each little snail here
Know how to wail here
That's why it's too hot
Under the water
Ya we in luck here
Down in the muck here
Under the sea

B.    The Analysis
1.    Denotation
Denotation is the meaning of word which is primarily refers to the real world and this is often the definition that is given in dictionary.

2.    Connotation
Connotation arise as words become related with certain characteristic of item to which they refer, or the association of positive or negative feelings to which they evokes, which may or may not be indicated in the dictionary definition. The positive connotation in the lyrics is ‘muck’, in the lyric ‘Down in the muck here’, the dictionary definition of ‘muck’is ‘the condition that is unpleasant’, but here the meaning of ‘muck’ is the condition which even live under the sea with all creatures there is very noisy but it makes them happy because they always have fun together.

3.    Ambiguity
     A word or a sentence is ambiguous if it can be undrstood or interpreted in more than one way (Fromkin et.al, 1990). The different words having same form or pronunciation may cause ambiguity among listeners or readers who do not pay attention to their context carefully. Among the different words having same form or pronunciation are:
a.     Homonyms (different words having same form)
·    slave ( a person who is legally owned by another person)
       slave (work very hard)   
·    bass (an electric guitar that plays very low note)
   bass ( a sea or freshwater fish that is used for food)
·    slave ( a person who is legally owned by another person)
slave (work very hard)   
·    bass (an electric guitar that plays very low note)
bass ( a sea or freshwater fish that is used for food)
b.    Homophones (different word which are pronounced the same)
·    To (used before the base form of a verb to show that the verb is the infinitive. The infinitive is used after many verbs and also many nouns and adjectives)
        Too (used before adjectives and adverbs to say that sth is more that is good, necessary,   possible)

4.    Antonym
The word antonym derives from the Greek root anti- (‘opposite’) and denotes oposition in meaning. In contrast to synonymy and hyponymy, antonymy is a binary relationship that can characterize a relationship between only two words at a time. Terms A and B are antonyms if, when A describes a referent, B cannot describe the same referent, and vice versa. The antonyms found in this song lyrics are:
·    happy (feeling or showing pleasure) >< sad (uhappy or showing unhappiness)
·    up (moving upwards) >< down (to force something down)
·    land (the surface of the earth that is not  sea) >< sea (the salt water that covers most of the earth’s surface and surrounds its continents and island)   

5.    Synonym
Two words are said to be synonymous if they mean the same thing. To addres the notion of synonymy more formally, we can say that term A is synonymous with term B if every referrent of A is a referent of B and vice versa. The synonyms found in this song lyrics are:
·    listen = hear (to be away of sounds by your ears or to pay attention to somebody/something that you can hear)
·    ocean = sea (the mass of salt water that covers most of the earth’s surface and surrounds its continents and island)
·    troubles = problems (difficult situation, worry)   
·    slug = snail (a small soft creature, with or without a hard round shell on its back, that moves very slowly and often eats garden plants )

6.    Hyponymy
A hyponym is a subordinate, specific term whose referent is included in the referent of a superordinate term and the relationship between each of the lower term (hyponym) and the higher term (superordinate) is called hyponymy.
·    cook (to prepare food by heating it, for example by boliling, baking or frying it) is superordinate of fry (to cook something in hot fat or oil)
·    fish is superordinate of :
a.    sturgeon (a large sea and freshwater fish that lives in nothern region . Strurgeon are used for foods and the eggs (called caviar) are also eaten)
b.    ray ( a seafish with a large broad flat body and long tail that is used for food)
c.   carp (a large freshwater fish that is used for the food)
d.   plaice ( a flat sea fish that is used for food)
e.   bass ( a sea or freshwater fish that is used for food)
f.    chub (a freshwater fish with athick body)
g.   fluke (a flat fish)
h.   ray ( a sea fish with a large broad flat body and long tail that is used for food)
i.    trout (a common freshwater fish that is used for food. There are several types of trout: rainbow trout, trour fishing)
j.    blackfish (a fish in a black coloured)
k.   smelt (a small fish bait)
l.    blowfish
n.   sprat (a very small European sea fish that is used for food)
o.   sardine (a small young sea fish that is either eaten fresh or preserved in tins/cans)
·    animal is superordinate of:
a.    fish (sturgeon, ray, carp, plaice, bass, chub,  fluke, ray, trout, blackfish, smelt blowfish, sprat, sardine)
b.    crustacean (any creature with a soft body that is divided into sections, and a hard outer shell. Most crustaceans live in water)
c.    clam (a shellfish that can be eaten. It has a shell in two parts that can open and close) 
d.    slug (a small soft creature, a snail with without a shell, that moves very slowly and often eats garden plants )
e.    snail (a small soft creature with a hard round shell on its back, that moves very slowly and often eats garden plants)
f.    newt (a small animal with short legs, a long tail and a cold blood, that lives both in water and on land)
·    dining set is superordinate of:
a.    bowl (a deep round dish with a wide open top, used specially for holding food or liquid)
b.    plate (a flat, usually round, dish that you put on)   
·    musical instrument is superordinate of:
a.    flute ( a musical instrument of the wood-wind group shaped like a tin pipe. The player holds it sideways and blows across a hole at one end)
b.    bass (an electric guitar that plays very low note)
      c.    harp (a large musical instrument with strings streched on vertical frame, played with the fingers)
d.    brass (the musical instrument made of metals, such as trumpets or french horns, that form a band or section of an orchestra)
e.    tuba ( a large brass musical instrument that you play by blowing, and that produces low notes)

7.  Polysemy
Polysemy (or multiple meaning) is a property of single lexemes; and this is what differentiates it, in principles, from homonymy.

EYL; Characteristics of Young Learner

     The art of teaching is essentially an art to evoke the natural curiosity of young minds (Anatole France, 20th century).

Young Learners (YLs) refer to children from the ages of four to twelve. Increasingly, though, children as young as three are being formally introduced to English as a foreign language. According to Sarah Phillips (1993), young learners are children from the first year of formal schooling (five or six years old) to eleven or twelve years of age. However, as any children's teacher will know, it is not so much the children's age that counts in the classroom as how mature they are. There are many factors that influence children's maturity: for example, their culture and environment (city or rural), sex, the expectations of their peers and parents.

Young children do not come to the language classroom with empty hand. They bring a well-established set of instincts, skills and characteristics which will help them to learn another language. We need to identify those and make the most of them. For example, children characteristics are curious, outspoken, active, inquisitive nature, and like to move around.
While they are skilled in:
- being very good at interpreting meaning without necessarily understanding the      individual words;
- having great ability in using limited language creatively;
- frequently learning indirectly rather than directly;
- taking great pleasure in finding and creating fun in which they do;
- creating  a ready imagination.

Text and Discourse

Actually there is no agreement among linguists as to the use of the term discourse in that some use it in reference to texts, while others claim it denotes speech. Consequently, she suggests using terms 'text' and 'discourse' almost interchangeably betokening the former refers to the linguistic product, while the latter implies the entire dynamics of the processes (Dakowska 2001:81). According to Cook (1990:7) novels, as well as short conversations or groans might be equally rightfully named discourses. But, sometimes there is a distinction made between text and discourse.

Text is the products of language use. For example: public notice saying cycling forbidden, novel, an academic article, or indeed a transcript of a conversation. Whereas, discourse is the process of meaning-creation and interaction, whether in writing or in speech. Such as: communication and feed back. It means that Discourse inclined to verbal communication. Both approaches have made significant contributions to applied linguistics, and go beyond the notion of language in social context, that is to say attending to the producers and receiver of language as much as to the language forms themselves.

The clearer explanation will be explained the next article.

Genres in Argumenatative Essay and Some Pedagogical Implications (Summary of RELC Journal)

    After reading this journal for several times, I can summarize that there are three points briefly explained here. Those are the structure of a familiar and important genre, the argumentative essay, and some other pedagogical implications.
a.    Schemata and Genre Analysis
    To improve our teaching of writing, it can use knowledge of text organization. The research in cognitive psychology has found a familiar stereotypical pattern called schemata. ‘Formal schemata’ represents knowledge about text types. Since the range of texts a reader can participate in based on how many formal schemata applied, there is an important part for the teachers to introduce the students about the schemata associated with genres (particular varieties of writing). In genre system of analysis, texts are distinguished based on their oriented aim and examined to determine how they are structured to reach particular ends. This covers how the writer typically organizes information or idea in a context of a specific text type.
b.    The Argumentative Essay
    This text is characterized by three stage structure representing the organizations of the genre. The first is the thesis Stage that introduces the discourse topic and advances the writer’s proposition or central statement. Then the second level is the Argument Stage that presents the infrastructure of reasons characterizing the genre. The last stage is the conclusion that is to consolidate the discourse and affirm what is communicated.
c.    Some Other Pedagogical Implications   
    The contribution of a language to examine language is therefore of primary pedagogical importance, allowing a greater and more effective degree of teacher intervention which is to make students aware of how language works in the context of the argumentative essay. Therefore, this description of the argumentative essay is beneficial in numerous ways.
    Genres are culturally formulated activities and represent how language is commonly applied to achieve particular goals in our society. Effective argument is as much a matter of organization as content. In other word, to argue is to express ideas in these particular ways.
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