Tampilkan postingan dengan label Language. Tampilkan semua postingan
Tampilkan postingan dengan label Language. Tampilkan semua postingan

Language - Language and the function of Advertisement

Language and Advertisement - Language has a powerful influence over people and their behavior. This is especially true in the fields of marketing and advertising. The choice of language to convey specific messages with the intention of influencing people is vitally important.

In achieving the function of advertisement in the product of advertising copy, an effective use of language becomes all the more important. Commenting on the extreme care that one should take with regard to the use of language in advertisement, Ranade states: „Incredible, the amount of damage one way cause with a slight play on words here and there, or a twins in the title, or even by the willful omission of a single comma‟.

Rhetorical Figures In Language

A rhetorical figure is known as an artful deviation. Since antiquity dozens of figures have been catalogued, ranging from the familiar (rhyme, pun) to be obscure (antimetabole). Deviation is used here in the neutral sense of a swerve or departure a way of marking the text. A rhetorical figure provides a means for making the familiar strange. Deviation, then is a matter of creating what consumer researchers might call incongruity.

Rhetorical figures depart from the norms of language either; the application of words or the manner which ideas the expressed. This study develops a framework for classifying rhetorical figures that distinguishes between figurative and non figurative text, between two types of figures schemes and tropes, and among four rhetorical operations that underlie individual figures, they are repetition, reversal, substitution and destabilization. Scheme type occurs when a text contains excessive order or regularity, while tropic type occurs when a text contains a deficiency of order or irregularities.

Language Disorder

More than one million of the students served in the public schools' special education programs in the 1997-98 school years were categorized as having a speech or language impairment. This estimate does not include children who have speech or language problems secondary to other conditions such as deafness. Language disorders may be related to other disabilities such as mental retardation, autism, or cerebral palsy. It is estimated that communication disorders (including speech, language, and hearing disorders) affect one of every 10 people in the United States.

As defined by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association: A language disorder is the impairment of deviant development of comprehension and/or use of spoken, written, and/or other symbol system. The disorder may involve (1) the form of language (phonologic, morphologic, and syntactic systems), (2) the content of language (semantic system), and/or (3) the function of language in communication (pragmatic system) in any combination (American Speech and Hearing Association, 1982).

Speech and language disorders refer to problems in communication and related areas such as oral motor function. These delays and disorders range from simple sound substitutions to the inability to understand or use language or use the oral-motor mechanism for functional speech and feeding. Some causes of speech and language disorders include hearing loss, neurological disorders, brain injury, mental retardation, drug abuse, physical impairments such as cleft lip or palate, and vocal abuse or misuse

Language disorders can be developmental (i.e. present from early childhood) or they can be acquired as the result of surgery, a stroke, an accident or old age. In certain cases, this had a marked effect upon their ability to communicate in speech or in writing (field, 2003: 53).


    There are some foundation principles of language assessment were introduced. Concepts like practicality, reliability, validity, authenticity, washback, direct and indirect testing, and performative and summative assessment are by now part of your vocabulary. The day to day classroom assessment of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Since the level at which you will most frequently have the opportunity to apply principles of assessment.
    For something in the way of a focus on form in assessment. There is no such thing as a test of grammar of vocabulary that does not invoke  one or more of the separate skills of listening, speaking, reading, or writing. It is not uncommon to find little “grammar test” and “vocabulary test” in textbook, and these may be perfectly useful instrument. But responses on these quizzer are usually written, with multiple choice selectio nor fill in the blank items.
    One reason for this emphasis is that listening is often implied as a component of speaking. In addition, the evertly observable nature of speaking renders it more empirically measureable  then listening. But perhaps a deerper cause lies in universal biases toward speaking. A good speaker is often (unwisely) valued more highly than a good listener.
Those are four commonly identified types of listening performance,each  of which comprises a category within which to consider assessment tasks and procedures.
1.    Intensive. Listening for perception of the components (phonemes, words, intonation, discourse markers, etc.) of a larger stretch of language.
2.    Responsive. Listening to a relatively short stretch of language (a greeting, question, command, comprehension check, etc.) in order to make an equally short response.
3.    Selective. Processing stretches of discourse such as short monologues for several minutes in order to “scan” for certain information.
4.    Extensive. Listening to develope a top-down, global understanding of spoken language.

Language and Media

Nowadays, as the world keeps developing, the presence of the media becomes crucial since it is the most effective medium to spread out the information to the people around the world. There are many kinds of the media, such as newspaper, magazines, tabloid, television, radio, and so on. They are different each other in terms of the way they carry out their function, the publishing, the style of the writing, the content, the way using the language, and so on.
Although there are differences among those kinds of the media, they hold the same functions. Any kind of the media has the primary four functions; to distribute the information, to teach, to entertain, and to influence. Those four functions must be carried out all by the media without the absence of one function or more. Therefore, the four functions of the media stated above can be called as four in one function meaning that the four is a unity; it cannot be separated each other.
As forum, the media can be the space for the society to demonstrate their asporation; critics and suggestion. Communication enables individuals and groups to act together cohesively as society in order to respond and get the best solution of the problems. In a traditional society, the agreement of what should be done to respond certain problems can be raised by communication. It is somehow inevitably for a modern society today since the more complex society relies much on the media (Rivers, Peterson, & Jensen, 2004: 34).

An Introduction to Pragmatics In Linguistics

Pragmatics is the study of how language is used in communication. The pragmatic of language is concerned with audience-directed intention-how the speaker or writer intends the utterance to be taken. It deals very explicitly with the study of relationship holding between linguistic forms and the human beings who use these forms. As such, pragmatics is concerned with people’s intentions, assumptions, beliefs, goals, and the kinds of actions they perform while using language.

Pragmatics is also concerned with context, situation, and settings within which such language uses occur. According to Yule17, the area of pragmatics deals with the speaker meaning and contextual meaning. Speaker meaning is concerned with the analysis of what people mean by their utterances rather than what the words and phrases in those utterances might mean in and of themselves. Speaker meaning, rather than sentence meaning, can only begin to be understood when context is taken into consideration. Any utterance, therefore, can take on various meanings depending on who produced it and under what circumstances.

This science studies the context within which the interaction occurs as well as the intention of the language users. Who are the addressees, what is the relation between speakers/writers and hearers/readers, when and where does the speech event occur and so on. Pragmatics also explore how listeners and readers can make inferences about what is said or written in order to arrive at an interpretation of the user’s intended meaning. There are four kinds of context. First, physical context, it is where a conversation and what action takes places, and what objects are present. Second, epistemic context, it is a background knowledge shared by speaker and hearer. The third is linguistic context. It is about the utterance which is followed by other utterances under consideration. Fourth or the last is social context. It is the social relationship and setting of interactive participants. Obviously, the emphasis in this kind of exploration must be placed not only on what is actually said but also on what is not being said explicitly but recognized implicitly as part of the communicative exchange, such as presupposition,  implication, shared knowledge and circumstantial evidence.

Slang Language


Slang is a specific word, phrase, or utterance, which is commonly used by young people in their community. It refers to unconventional words, so it is not appropriate to be spoken in a formal situation, such as in the school, university, or in the office. Frommer and Finegan (2004) wrote “Slang terms are often found in movies and music reviews, lifestyle pieces, and people columns” (p.243). While Anderson and Trudgill in Ulfa (2003) wrote that actually, slang is not language ordialect, it can be said as a code that produced by changing the existing language to the common one. Every language has a vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar, whereas slang has not. It just has vocabulary which is not profanity and ungrammatical. Dialect refers to the different language caused by geographical area, whereas slang is not restricted to one region or country (p. 24)

Slang that was widely used in the early twentieth century, firstly appeared in 1800’s when it was used by criminal classes in London (Maurer:2003). It was produced largely by social group, such as criminal classes, narcotic addicts, sexual deviant community, racial minority community, political organization, armed forces, rapper, etc, rather than by individual speakers. The first reason why they used slang was to make the expressions secret. Nowadays, teenagers often use it

in their daily communication with their community. By using slang, teenagers feel free in conversation with their community, every time and everywhere without anyone who understands the meaning.

Recently, slang is not only used by certain communities as secret expressions but also used commonly by teenagers. It is considered as a simple word or phrase which is not profanity and ungrammatical. Goodword (2006) stated that slang is a crucial part of a young person “coming of age,” one of the first detectable signs of their breaking away from their parents and their parents’

values. It is a cheap second language that express as the differences between young people who are about to enter adulthood from his or her parents’ generation (p.1). On the other hand, Mulyana (2001) said that “slang are words or phrases, which have specific, meaning, unique, deviate, even opposite with the real meaning used by certain community” (p. 280). However, some slang may be accepted as a standard speech, although in its original meaning, for example, bus from omnibus, jazz, which originally had sexual connotation, and VIP (Very Important Person).

Whereas some expressions of Indonesian slang are makan gengsi, (obstinate), udah (finish), PDKT (aprroach), naksir (love) as Faruq (2004) examined in his research A Study of Play of Words and Slang on “The ABG Problem” Section in Jawa Pos daily newspaper

12 Lagu Anak-anak Yang Menyesatkan !

Di waktu sekarang, lagu anak anak tidaklah setenar jaman semuda saya dulu. Waktu kecil, beberapa channel di TV bahkan menyediakan acara khusus yang memutarkan lagu lagu anak contohnya acara Tralala Trilili, Dunia Anak, dll. ada beberapa lagu populer sepanjang masa kaya' Balonku dan Bintang Kecil yang seakan sudah wajib diajarkan ke anak-anak.  Ternyata di antara lagu anak-anak yang populer tersebut, ada yang banyak mengandung kesalahan, mengajarkan kerancuan, dan menurunkan motivasi. 
Berikut buktinya:

1. “Balonku ada 5… rupa-rupa warnanya… merah, kuning, kelabu.. merah muda dan biru… meletus balon hijau, dorrrr!!!” Perhatikan warna-warna kelima balon tsb., kenapa tiba2 muncul warna hijau ? Jadi jumlah balon sebenarnya ada 6, bukan 5!

2. “Aku seorang kapiten… mempunyai pedang panjang… kalo berjalan prok..prok.. prok… aku seorang kapiten!” Perhatikan di bait pertama dia cerita tentang pedangnya, tapi di bait kedua dia cerita tentang sepatunya (inkonsistensi) . Harusnya dia tetap konsisten, misal jika ingin cerita tentang sepatunya seharusnya dia bernyanyi : “mempunyai sepatu baja (bukan pedang panjang)… kalo berjalan prok..prok.. prok..” nah, itu baru klop! jika ingin cerita tentang pedangnya, harusnya dia bernyanyi : “mempunyai pedang panjang… kalo berjalan ndul..gondal. .gandul.. atau srek.. srek.. srek..” itu baru sesuai dg kondisi pedang panjangnya!

3. “Bangun tidur ku terus mandi.. tidak lupa menggosok gigi.. habis mandi ku tolong ibu.. membersihkan tempat tidurku..” Perhatikan setelah habis mandi langsung membersihkan tempat tidur. Lagu ini membuat anak-anak tidak bisa terprogram secara baik dalam menyelesaikan tugasnya dan selalu terburu-buru. Sehabis mandi seharusnya si anak pakai baju dulu dan tidak langsung membersihkan tempat tidur dalam kondisi basah dan telanjang!

4. “Naik-naik ke puncak gunung.. tinggi.. tinggi sekali.. kiri kanan kulihat saja.. banyak pohon cemara.. 2X” Lagu ini dapat membuat anak kecil kehilangan konsentrasi, semangat dan motivasi! Pada awal lagu terkesan semangat akan mendaki gunung yang tinggi tetapi kemudian ternyata setelah melihat jalanan yg tajam mendaki lalu jadi bingung dan gak tau mau ngapain, bisanya cuma noleh ke kiri ke kanan aja, gak maju2!

5. “Naik kereta api tut..tut..tut. . siapa hendak turut ke Bandung .. Surabaya .. bolehlah naik dengan naik percuma.. ayo kawanku lekas naik.. keretaku tak berhenti lama” Nah, yg begini ini yg parah! mengajarkan anak-anak kalo sudah dewasa maunya gratis melulu. Pantesan PJKA rugi terus! terutama jalur Jakarta- Bandung dan Jakarta-Surabaya!

6. “Di pucuk pohon cempaka.. burung kutilang berbunyi.. bersiul2 sepanjang hari dg tak jemu2.. mengangguk2 sambil bernyanyi tri li li..li..li.. li..li..” Ini juga menyesatkan dan tidak mengajarkan kepada anak2 akan realita yg sebenarnya. Burung kutilang itu kalo nyanyi bunyinya cuit..cuit.. cuit..! kalo tri li li li li itu bunyi kalo yang nyanyi orang, bukan burung!

7. “Pok ame ame.. belalang kupu2.. siang makan nasi, kalo malam minum susu..”
Ini jelas lagu dewasa dan untuk konsumsi anak2! karena yg disebutkan di atas itu adalah kegiatan orang dewasa, bukan anak kecil. Kalo anak kecil, karena belom boleh maem nasi, jadi gak pagi gak malem ya minum susu!

8. “nina bobo oh nina bobo kalau tidak bobo digigit nyamuk”
Anak2 indonesia diajak tidur dgn lagu yg “mengancam”

9. “Bintang kecil dilangit yg biru…”
Bintang khan adanya malem, lah kalo malem bukannya langit item?

10. “Ibu kita Kartini…harum namanya.”
Namanya Kartini atau Harum?

11. “Pada hari minggu ku turut ayah ke kota. naik delman istimewa kududuk di muka.”
Nah,gak sopan khan..

12. “Cangkul-cangkul, cangkul yang dalam, menanam jagung dikebun kita…”
kalo mau nanam jagung, ngapain nyangkul dalam-dalam.

retrieved from 


English is an Anglo-Frisian language brought to Britain in the 5th Century AD by Germanic settlers from various parts of northwest Germany. The original Old English language was subsequently influenced by two successive waves of invasion. The first was by speakers of languages in the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic family, who colonized parts of Britain in the 8th and 9th centuries.

English Language
English is a West Germanic language which is the dominant language in the United Kingdom, the United States, many Commonwealth nations including Australia, Canada, New Zealand and other former British colonies. It is the second most spoken language in the world. It is estimated that there are 380 million native speakers and 300 million who use English as a second language and a further 100 million use it as a foreign language. It is the language of science, aviation, computing, diplomacy, and tourism. It is listed as the official or co-official language of over 45 countries and is spoken extensively in other countries where it has no official status. English plays a part in the cultural, political or economic life of the following countries.

History of the English Language
    English is an Anglo-Frisian language brought to Britain in the 5th Century AD by Germanic settlers from various parts of northwest Germany. The original Old English language was subsequently influenced by two successive waves of invasion. The first was by speakers of languages in the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic family, who colonized parts of Britain in the 8th and 9th centuries. The second wave was of the Normans in the 11th century, who spoke Norman (an oil language closely related to French).

             The history of the language can be traced back to the arrival of three Germanic tribes to the British Isles during the 5th Century AD. Angles, Saxons and Jutes crossed the North Sea from what is the present day Denmark and northern Germany. The inhabitants of Britain previously spoke a Celtic language. This was quickly displaced. Most of the Celtic speakers were pushed into Wales, Cornwall and Scotland. One group migrated to the Brittany Coast of France where their descendants still speak the Celtic Language of Breton today. The Angles were named from Engle, their land of origin. Their language was called Englisc from which the word, English derives.

          It is convenient to divide English into periods—Old English (or Anglo-Saxon; to c.1150), Middle English (to c.1500), and Modern English.

Descriptive Research

Descriptive research does not fit neatly into the definition of either quantitative or qualitative research methodologies, but instead it can utilize elements of both, often within the same study. The term descriptive research refers to the type of research question, design, and data analysis that will be applied to a given topic. Descriptive statistics tell what is, while inferential statistics try to determine cause and effect.

Descriptive research can be either quantitative or qualitative. It can involve collections of quantitative information that can be tabulated along a continuum in numerical form, such as scores on a test or the number of times a person chooses to use a-certain feature of a multimedia program, or it can describe categories of information such as gender or patterns of interaction when using technology in a group situation. Descriptive research involves gathering data that describe events and then organizes, tabulates, depicts, and describes the data collection (Glass & Hopkins, 1984). It often uses visual aids such as graphs and charts to aid the reader in understanding the data distribution. Because the human mind cannot extract the full import of a large mass of raw data, descriptive statistics are very important in reducing the data to manageable form. When in-depth, narrative descriptions of small numbers of cases are involved, the research uses description as a tool to organize data into patterns that emerge during analysis. Those patterns aid the mind in comprehending a qualitative study and its implications.

Three main purposes of research are to describe, explain, and validate findings. Description emerges following creative exploration, and serves to organize the findings in order to fit them with explanations, and then test or validate those explanations (Krathwohl, 1993). Many research studies call for the description of natural or man-made phenomena such as their form, structure, activity, change over time, relation to other phenomena, and so on. The description often illuminates knowledge that we might not otherwise notice or even encounter. Several important scientific discoveries as well as anthropological information about events outside of our common experiences have resulted from making such descriptions. For example, astronomers use their telescopes to develop descriptions of different parts of the universe, anthropologists describe life events of socially atypical situations or cultures uniquely different from our own, and educational researchers describe activities within classrooms concerning the implementation of technology. This process sometimes results in the discovery of stars and stellar events, new knowledge about value systems or practices of other cultures, or even the reality of classroom life as new technologies are implemented within schools.

Processing non-literal sentences in comprehending language

 The phrase we hear is not always reveal the meaning of each combination of words in the sentence. It often happens that the meaning of an element of A is compared with element B can not in search of the meaning of A and B. collocation between A and B rather than bring meaning but the meaning of AB is C. It Similarly, we often use what is called a metaphor, ie, a phrase which equates something (which is generally called a topic) with something else (which is called the a vehicle), although both are not the same. Old-fashioned phrases such as: bibirnya seperti delima merekah , rambutnya bagai mayang terurai and modern expression is sutan takdir adalah dewa dalam budaya dan sastra bangsa that does not have a literal meaning. We must know the delima merekah dan mayang terurai and was like what in the perception of what caused it. Similarly Sutan Alisjahbana certainly not gods. After that, then we know the intended meaning: delima merekah dan mayang terurai in the think of it beautiful, think of it being the god of wisdom who knows all, and so on. Therefore, bibir or rambut gadis is a beautiful one who knows a lot about literature  and culture of Indonesia. 
           The phrase idioms, metaphors and indirect questions like this we must also understand correctly. The question that arises is how we understand a sentence like this. The answer to this there has been no satisfactory. Some theories state that there are three stages in the processing. First we give a literal response to every word coming first. So when I heard the word trash, then all matters related to this word in our minds: {- animate}, {object}, {human} and so on. Similarly, when we hear the word tong. Then we give literal meaning to the words we hear it. In our example, we give literal meaning to the tongseng. Apparently collocation between the tong and seng, more so in the context he again ate tongseng, do not make sense. Because the knock on the interpretation of this kind then we go into the third processing stage, namely to find another meaning beyond the literal meaning of the impossible. 

Studying English in an English-speaking country is the best but not the only way to learn the language

In this global era, English is considered as an international communication media. There is a dozen of ways to facilitate us in studying English, one of which is by studying in an English-speaking country like America or British.

For some people, it is likely adequate to study English in a short course for several months as long as they are willing to work hard. All they need to do here are about practice. They do not have to wait for the chance to go abroad comes in order to practice speaking English only. There are a lot of people who can speak English fluently without going to the English-native country, so basically studying English according to them is not something so complicated because it can be applied everywhere as the fact that English language has widely been used in most countries.

However, since the language is not only a fluent speaking but also a cultural understanding, to study English in native-speaking country is still much better because it will give the students a more natural atmosphere in the process of language acquisition. The native environment will bring an ease to the students in learning English. They will know how to apply an accepted language in interacting with the society.

As the conclusion, although there are many ways to study English but studying this language in an English-speaking country is the best because it has a natural environment supporting the process of English learning.

Language; Discourse and Text


Originally the word 'discourse' comes from Latin 'discursus' which denoted 'conversation, speech'. According to some linguist, they have illustrated by the following definition: Discourse is a continuous stretch of (especially spoken) language larger than a sentence, often constituting a coherent unit such as a sermon, argument, joke, or narrative" (Crystal 1992:25). On the other hand Dakowska, being aware of differences between kinds of discourses indicates the unity of communicative intentions as a vital element of each of them.
There are seven criteria which have to be fulfilled to qualify either a written or a spoken text as a discourse has been suggested by Beaugrande (1981).

These include:
·    Cohesion - grammatical relationship between parts of a sentence essential for its interpretation;
·    Coherence - the order of statements relates one another by sense.
·    Intentionality - the message has to be conveyed deliberately and consciously;
·    Acceptability - indicates that the communicative product needs to be satisfactory in that the audience approves it;
·    Informativeness - some new information has to be included in the discourse;
·    Situationality - circumstances in which the remark is made are important;
·    Intertextuality - reference to the world outside the text or the interpreters' schemata;

Nowadays, however, not all of the above mentioned criteria are perceived as equally important in discourse studies, therefore some of them are valid only in certain methods of the research (Beaugrande 1981, cited in Renkema 2004:49).

3.2    Text
What is text? The answer that is often given is that a text is a sequence of sentence. This answer is clearly unsatisfactory. Text is two or more utterances that must be cohesion or connectedness one to another.

A long tradition of text linguistics that has persisted in northern Europe made some attempts about the text analysis. First, it began with attempts to account for how sentences are linked together using linguistics resources. Than, Werlich (1976) described of how linguistic features characterize strategies used in different text type (narrative, descriptive, expository and argumentative). Likewise, the prague school and it’s followers, among whom was Michael hallyday, focused on how the construction of individual construction in terms of their theme (their starting point) and rheme (what was being said about the topic) contributed to the larger pattern of information in extended texts (see fries 1983; eiler 1986; francis 1989; firbas 1992)

For example:
Werlich was enormously influential among German EFL teachers.
The explanation from the example above is that the theme (the starting point- usually the grammatical subject) is werlich, and the rheme is what is said about him (that he was enormously influential). We can repeat different number of theme over a number of sentences, and use the rheme of the one sentence in the theme of the next sentence are among the preoccupations of the prague school linguist, and they represent a major strand of functional (as defined in halliday 1997: 16) approaches to text.

    There are approaches in analyses text. First is concerning the cognitive processing of extended writing texts, and second is rethorical structure analysis.

1.    Concerning the cognitive processing of extended writing texts.
       The steps of this approaches are:
o    we need to activate a necessary scheme (or mental presentation)
o    we have to infer (if we do not know it). Since this is not stated explicitly.
o    we need to give the implicit meaning.

Text and Discourse

Actually there is no agreement among linguists as to the use of the term discourse in that some use it in reference to texts, while others claim it denotes speech. Consequently, she suggests using terms 'text' and 'discourse' almost interchangeably betokening the former refers to the linguistic product, while the latter implies the entire dynamics of the processes (Dakowska 2001:81). According to Cook (1990:7) novels, as well as short conversations or groans might be equally rightfully named discourses. But, sometimes there is a distinction made between text and discourse.

Text is the products of language use. For example: public notice saying cycling forbidden, novel, an academic article, or indeed a transcript of a conversation. Whereas, discourse is the process of meaning-creation and interaction, whether in writing or in speech. Such as: communication and feed back. It means that Discourse inclined to verbal communication. Both approaches have made significant contributions to applied linguistics, and go beyond the notion of language in social context, that is to say attending to the producers and receiver of language as much as to the language forms themselves.

The clearer explanation will be explained the next article.

Communication by Written language

Written language is used in formal form and informal form. In formal form of written language,  you must follow the characteristic of writing, like when you  write a paper or letters. When you write in informal forms like on chatting and sending sort message, there is no penalty for spelling and punctuation errors. 

To write speech communication, please try not to use words you are not comfortable pronouncing or do not know the meaning of because it can lead to a less fluently delivered speech. Written texts are typically not perceived and interpreted at the same times and places. The written texts can be used in different ways, re-employed, duplicated, distributed to particular persons or groups in new situations, and these activities can be regarded as proper communicative acts. A written text and its components parts (letters, words, sentences, and paragraphs) have the character of objects; they are persistent but not temporally organized.

 Characteristics of Written Language
a.    Vocabulary
In both of languages always need vocabulary, but in writing neede letters, words, sentences, and paragraphs.
b.    Grammar
Grammar is always being needed in any kinds of language even in writing or speech even less in written language.
c.    Punctuation
There must be punctuations in written language that the use is the same with intonation in spoken language.

Spoken language and speech communication

In a normal speech communication situation, a speaker tries to influence the listener by making him perceive, understand, and feel at the same time and place. The speaker's speech behavior is continuously accompanied and supplemented by various non-verbal signals, which means that the verbal message as such is often much less explicit than in writing, interpretations may be made more precise and complex through gestures, facial expressions, tones of voice etc. 

After all, the use of an utterance in a normal situation is involved face-to-face interaction because it presented in the same time and place like what said in previews sentence and the listener responds all the time the whole speech with the act of speaker until understand what told. Spoken communication is not always in formal speech but also on chat or sending sort message. In this kind of communication, there is no penalty for spelling and punctuation errors.

Characteristics of Spoken Language

a.    Vocabulary
When you speak ofcourse you need vocabularies because it is one of media to speak and without vocabulary there will not be a speech.
b.    Grammar
As the same with what was said in the previous part, language has grammar factor. In informal communication, there is no penalty for it.
c.    Intonation
In speech we can see the intonation directly but in writing we just can imagine how is the intonation through the punctuations there and it is not always the same with what the author’s want.

Language as Discourse : Speech and Wrting in Applied Linguistic

Discourse generally is refers to spoken language and written language. There are differencies between both of them in hearer or reader. Sometimes the reader can not understand what author wants, its because most of people avoid difficult conversasional with partners then when they find a written-spoken they will difficult to understand well. Writing typically done in one time and one place, whereas reading it always in other time.

There are three important factors that must be noticed in both written language and spoken language. Firstly is about four skills that constructed around a written-spoken dichotomy. Means these four skills will not be without written-spoken dichotomy and always related to these factors. Second factor is about grammar that may be change depend on the owner’s of data wether in spoekn or written. The last one that always questioned is about the rules of sentences such as how to arrange clause, complementation, and other kinds of sentences.

In speech and writing there will be the differencies model of kind of written language and spoken language in the way how people talk and how people write it in any kinds of writing and speaking. This also related to text and discourse that discuses about the process of how to create meanings in texts and also how do we interact to kind of texts whether in writing or speaking in many kinds of text such as novel, academic article or other kinds of texts. There will be discourse analysis that concern in distributions elements of linguistic in escalated texts and links between the texts and its contexts. Discourse analysis is as general approach of linguistic.

Phonological Acquisition


Students of all ages may find them hard to read, and we know from various research report that, in English at least, the difficulty is largely alingustic one (Halliday and Martin,1996:24). Here, we want to describe about phonology, acquisition, language acquisition, and phonological acquisition.

Phonology is studies the way in which speech sound form system which enable speaker of a given language, to agree on when two strings of sounds ( the production of which can be infinitely varied) are basically the same; when looked at in this way, more sounds become phonemes, the basic building blocks for meaningful language units such as morphemes and word.

Acquisition is the act or process of achieving mastery of a language or a linguistic rule or element: child language acquisition; second language acquisition.

Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive, produce and use words to understand and communicate. Phonological acquisition is theoretical framework is that of gererative phonology, with a focus on autosegmental, feature-geometric, underspecified, and prosodic  representation.
Phonological acquisition is regular; this means that once the correlations between the adult system and the child's performance have been worked out, one can correctly predict the child's output for any arbitrary word of the adult language.

Code-switching and code-mixing

    Code-switching is the process of changing language from one language to another, like from Indonesian language to English. There are three types of code-switching:
·    Extra-sentential code switching, or the insertion of a tag, e.g. ‘you know’, ‘I mean’, from one language into an utterance which is entirely in another language.
·    Intersentential code switching, or switch at clause/sentence boundary, one clause being in one language, the other clause in the other, e.g. ‘Saya tahu anda benar, but you cannot blame other people’.
·    Intrasentential code switching, where switches of different types occur within the clause boundary, including within the word boundary, e.g. ‘I ingin pergi ke school with my friend jam enam, so you have to prepare everything for me’.
Beside code-switching, speaker can also do code-mixing. Code mixing is using two or more language informally between people who we know closely. In this informal situation, we can freely use our language varieties, especially when there are some words which are untranslatable in other languages. For example:
Aku ingin meng-upload foto-fotoku di Facebook
Aku sering men-download film di internet
Sampean sudah makan?
These three sentences indicate mixing between two languages. First sentence is Indonesian language, but in the middle of this sentence there are words which are taken from English (upload, internet). In the second sentence, word download is from English. The speaker takes this word to speak in Indonesian language. The last sentence is mixing between Javanese (sampean) and Indonesian language (sudah makan?).

The Design of Constituent Production

After the design of sentences is made, the speaker should consider the constituent to form the sentence. A word is selected by the speaker because of its proper meaning. For example, a man is as a reference. If someone hates him, she may call him ‘si brengsek’, while if she likes her, the man may be called as ‘si tampan’. In this, we can say that what is selected by the speaker is based on the meaning which wants to be conveyed.
Besides, the sentence context is also essential to be understood. In the case of article uses; a (book) or the (book), we should identify the context and the reference of the word uttered. In English language, there is a special rule in which a unique word should be marked by the such as the sun, the moon, or the earth, even we never talk about those things previously.
In addition, the word selection depends on the distinguishability principles. If there are two references with the distinctive physical appearance, we will use a semantic feature to to differentiate them.
To have a similar reference, the speaker cannot use the same words, he is naturally forced to use different words based on the situation.
For this case, some other languages like Indonesia or French have an additional point of consideration in designing the constituent production. For example, there is a special rule for pronoun uses in French. People there use a word tu (you) to express a close or conventional relationship and use word vous (anda) to honor someone. In Javanese language, it has an honorific system that should be noticed in the way we speak and behave in it. This language requires us to have knowledge about the social status, age, the kinship relationship to produce the proper utterance.
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