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Tampilkan postingan dengan label Morphology. Tampilkan semua postingan

An Introduction To Morphology

Morphology is the study of morpheme obviously. Literally, the word morphology is built by two words. These are morpheme and logy. Morpheme means the smallest meaning that word can be divided into mean while logy means acknowledge or science. So we can conclude that morphology is a science that focuses on developing of the word. Morphology function deals with development and changing of word status.

Morphemes are the minimal units of words that have a meaning or grammatical function and cannot be subdivided further. Let’s clarify this definition with some examples. We would say that the reopened in the sentence The police reopened the investigation consists of three morphemes.

Morphological Errors (Only morphemes)

a)    Morpheme shift
I haven't satten down and writ__ it (I haven't sat down and written it)
I had forgot__ aboutten it (I had forgotten about it)
He point__ outed that . . . (He pointed out that . . .)
You __ have to do learn that (you do have to learn)
what that add__ ups to (adds up to)
who could __form at a . . . (perform at a higher level)
b)    Morpheme substitutions
Sometimes I have putten it in . . . (Sometimes I put  it in . . .)
a timeful remark (timely)
By his own admittance (admission)
Where's the fire distinguisher? (Where's the fire extinguisher?)
In accordance with those types of speech error classification, there are also some types which is considered as speech error
a.    Silent Pause    : it is a condition by which the pausing is exists during the speech. There is a period of no speech between words speech of talking. For example, turn on the // heater switch.
b.    Filled pause    : it is a gap which is filled by a…. ah,,,, er…. uumm.. etc. for example  turn on, ummm, the heater switch.
c.    Repeats        : basically the speaker intends to say something, though he/she makes speech error through repeating one of the words in a row. For example, turn on the heater/ the heater switch.

Morphology; Morphs and Allomorphs

    One way to treat differences in inflectional morphemes is by proposing variation in morphological realization rules. In order to do this, we draw an analogy with some processes like in phonology.

 If we consider ‘phones’ as the actual phonetic realization of ‘phonemes’, then we can propose morphs as the actual forms used to realize morphemes. Thus, the form cat is a single morph realizing a lexical morpheme. The form ‘cats’ consists of two morphs, realizing a lexical morpheme and an inflectional morpheme (‘plural’). Just as we know that there were ‘allophones’ of a particular phoneme, then we can recognize allomorphs of a particular morpheme.

    Take the morpheme ‘plural’. Note that it can be attached to a number of lexical morphemes to produce structure like ‘cat + plural’, ‘sheep + plural’, and ‘man+ plural’. Now the actual forms of the morphs which result from the single morpheme ‘plural’ turn out to be different. Yet they are all allomorphs of the one morpheme. It has been suggested, for example, that one allomorph of ‘plural’ is a zero-morph, and the plural form sheep is actually ‘sheep + o ’.

Morphology: Morpheme, Free Morpheme, and Bound Morpheme


    Morphology is the study of morpheme obviously. The definition of morphemes is the smallest meaningful unit that has grammatical function. For instance, the word tourist contains three morphemes. Those are one minimal unit of meaning tour, another minimal unit of meaning -ist (person who does something) and one minimal unit of grammatical function –s (indicating plural).

Free and Bound Morphemes

There is a broad distinction between two types of morphemes, free and bound. Free morphemes are the set of separate English word forms such as basic nouns and verbs that can stand by themselves as a single word such as open and tour. Then bound morphemes are morphemes that typically need to be attached to another form, exemplified as re-, -ist. This last set is identified as affixes. When free morphemes used with bound morphemes attached are technically known as stems. For example:
care      -less        -ness
stem      suffix        suffix
free      bound    bound

However, there are a number of English words in which their stems are factually not free morphemes. In words such as receive, reduce, re- at the beginning of those words are identified as the bound morphemes but the elements –ceive, -duce are not separate words and free morphemes. So these types of form are described as ‘bound stems’ to distinguish them from ‘free stems’ such as dress and care.

Morphology; Types of the Morphemes

In morphology, there are two broad categories of morphemes: free morphem and bound morpheme

A. Free Morphemes

What we have described as free morphemes fall into two categories. The first category is that set of ordinary nouns, adjectives and verbs which we think of as the word carrying the ‘content’ of message we convey. This free morpheme is called lexical morphemes and some examples are: boy, men, tiger, sad, long and yellow. We can add new lexical morphemes to the language rather easily, so they are treated as an ‘open’ class of words. 

The other group of free morphemes is called functional morphemes.  The examples are: and, but, when, on, near, in, the, that. This set consists largely of the functional words in the language such as conjunctions, prepositions, articles and pronouns. Because we almost never add new functional morphemes to the language, they are described as a ‘close’ class of words.

 B. Bound Morphemes

Affixes are often named as the bound morpheme. This group includes prefixes, suffixes, infixes, and circum fixes. Prefixes are added to the beginning of another morpheme, suffixes are added to the end, infixes are inserted into other morphemes, and circum fixes are attached to another morpheme at the beginning and end. 

Following are examples of each of these:

Prefix: re- added to do produces redo
Suffix: -or added to edit produces editor
Infix: -um- added to fikas (strong) produces fumikas (to be strong) in Bontoc
Circum fix: ge- and -t to lieb (love) produces geliebt (loved) in German
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