Tampilkan postingan dengan label Pragmatics. Tampilkan semua postingan
Tampilkan postingan dengan label Pragmatics. Tampilkan semua postingan

Pragmatics – Interrogative Sentences In Linguistics

Interrogative Sentences In Linguistics - Questions, or interrogative sentences in linguistics, are broadly defined as utterances that require a verbal response from the addressee (Carter, 2006: 715). This type of illocution attempts to elicit particular information, typically in the form of an answer. The interrogative sentence asks a question, closed with an interrogation point and in the form of a question (Curme and George O., 1931; Merriam-Webster‟s Collegiate Dictionary, 1998). Interrogative sentences frequently occur in the conversations, for example: when asking about an event happened in the past.

Questions may range from forms involving imperatives, to simple interrogatives, interrogatives with modal verbs, indirect interrogatives, declaratives and reduced questions.

An Introduction To Discourse Analysis

In a bit long holiday like this time, some of you, guys, may forget about discourse analysis. Now, i wanna help you to keep you schemata about discourse by posting this article. it does not mean that when discourse class finish, there is no need to keep in touch with that course. Discourse analysis is not simply just a lesson written in those papers. no way. the real discourse needed to analyse is still there, exist in many parts of our daily life. thus, it is clear that this approach is inevitably crucial to the students or who ever you are. Now, if you forget that definiton and the scopes of discourse analysis, please read this brief notes.
A. What is discourse analysis?
Discourse Analysis is an approach we use in analyzing the language context either in a written or spoken text. Discourse anaysis and pragmatics have a close relation, even some people are difficult to separate these two distintive terms. if you study about pragmatics, you analyse how the context can give contribution to the message meant. To anayse that, you need the discourse analysis as your approach to examine the pragmatic problems.

Euphemism Definition and Examples

Language is a power used to make one’s statement stronger. Someone uses language to influence people. Moreover, it can hide the fact to avoid misunderstanding between the speaker and the hearer or the writer and the reader. This is the same things with euphemism that implying the use of polite expression.

In language use, there is common way that is used by people to speak in polite expression, it is usually called euphemism. Euphemistic words and expressions allow us to talk about unpleasant things and neutralize the unpleasantness, e.g. the subject of death and dying, unemployment, and criminality (Wardhaugh, 1986:231).

Language and Media


Nowadays, as the world keeps developing, the presence of the media becomes crucial since it is the most effective medium to spread out the information to the people around the world. There are many kinds of the media, such as newspaper, magazines, tabloid, television, radio, and so on. They are different each other in terms of the way they carry out their function, the publishing, the style of the writing, the content, the way using the language, and so on.
Although there are differences among those kinds of the media, they hold the same functions. Any kind of the media has the primary four functions; to distribute the information, to teach, to entertain, and to influence. Those four functions must be carried out all by the media without the absence of one function or more. Therefore, the four functions of the media stated above can be called as four in one function meaning that the four is a unity; it cannot be separated each other.
As forum, the media can be the space for the society to demonstrate their asporation; critics and suggestion. Communication enables individuals and groups to act together cohesively as society in order to respond and get the best solution of the problems. In a traditional society, the agreement of what should be done to respond certain problems can be raised by communication. It is somehow inevitably for a modern society today since the more complex society relies much on the media (Rivers, Peterson, & Jensen, 2004: 34).

Pragmatic Study: Theory of Deixis and The Definition


When language is spoken, it occurs in a specific location, at a specific time, is produced by a specific person and is (usually) addressed to some specific other person. Only written language can ever be free of this kind of anchoring in the extra linguistic situation. A sentence on a slip of paper can move through space and time, "speaker" – less, and addressee – less. All natural, spoken languages have devices that link the utterance with its spatio – temporal and personal context. This linkage is called "deixis." (Tanz in Fromkin, 2003: 217)

Definition of Deixis
Deixis is the way in which a small number of words, such as come, go, I, here and now require an addressee to be able to pick out a person, place, or time relevant in understanding how the word refers (Grundy, 2000: 23). Because I, Here, and now identify particular referents, it can be picked out to refer to if we like. We call these words indexical and this function of language deictic, borrowing the Greek word meaning pointing to or picking out. In addition, Levinson (1983: 54) states that deixis is the single most obvious way in which the relationship between language and context is reflected in the structures of languages themselves. The topic of deixis or as philosophers usually prefer, indexical expressions (or just indexicals), may be usefully approached by considering how truth – conditional semantics deals with certain  natural language expressions.
According to Renkema (1993: 76), deixis deals with connection between discourse and the situation in which discourse is used. The words deixis, which is derived from the Greek word meaning “to show” or “ to indicate”, is used to denote those elements in a language which refer directly to the situation, while deictic words are words with a reference point which is depend on the speaker or writer and is determined by the speaker’s or writer’s position in space and time.
Fillmore in Levinson (1983: 54) states that the importance of deictic information for the interpretation of utterances is perhaps best illustrated by what happens when such information is lacking. For example, finding the following notice on someone’s office door “I’ll back in an hour”, we do not know when it was written, we cannot know when the writer will return. A deictic center is a reference point which is related to a deictic expression or an expression that has a deictic usage which has to be interpreted. (Levinson, 1983 : 64). The central person is the speaker, the central time is the time at which the speaker produces the utterance, and the central place is the speaker’s location at utterance time.
The form of deictic is classified into two, namely deictic in which the context is required to determine the reference and non – deictic in which the reference is general rather than to particular identifiable persons (Grundy, 2000:6). In accordance with Levinson (1983: 68), deictic is used for gestural and symbolic, while non – deictic is used for non – anaphoric, and anaphoric.
Based on the preceding definition, it can be conclude that deixis is a words or expressions whose meaning depends on the context of the speaking. To know  the meaning of the language, we have to determine the speaker who produces the utterance, and the location of the utterance in space and time.

Brown and Levinson’s (1987) Concept of Politeness In Face Threatening Acts


Sometimes in our daily lives, we can find acts that do not satisfy the “face wants” of the speaker and the hearer. The acts that threaten either positive or negative face of the hearer are called ‘Face Threatening Acts’ (Brown and Levinson). In other words, those acts infringe on the hearer’s need to maintain his/her self-esteem and are respected. Those acts that primarily threaten the addressee’s or Hearer (H’s) negative face want, by indicating (potentially) that the speaker (S) does not intend to avoid impeding H’s freedom of action, include orders, requests, suggestions, advice, reminding, threat, warning, offer, promise, compliment, and expression of negative emotion.
In contrast, there are acts that threaten H’s positive face such as expression of dissatisfaction, disagreement, criticisms, complaints, accusation, insults, out of control, irrelevance, bringing bad news about H or boasting about S, raising divisive topics, and blatant non-cooperation in an activity. All these acts indicate that the speaker does not care about the addressee’s feeling or want. For example, disagreeing with someone’s opinion also causes threat to his positive face, as it means that you indicate that he is wrong about something.

An Introduction to Pragmatics In Linguistics


Pragmatics is the study of how language is used in communication. The pragmatic of language is concerned with audience-directed intention-how the speaker or writer intends the utterance to be taken. It deals very explicitly with the study of relationship holding between linguistic forms and the human beings who use these forms. As such, pragmatics is concerned with people’s intentions, assumptions, beliefs, goals, and the kinds of actions they perform while using language.

Pragmatics is also concerned with context, situation, and settings within which such language uses occur. According to Yule17, the area of pragmatics deals with the speaker meaning and contextual meaning. Speaker meaning is concerned with the analysis of what people mean by their utterances rather than what the words and phrases in those utterances might mean in and of themselves. Speaker meaning, rather than sentence meaning, can only begin to be understood when context is taken into consideration. Any utterance, therefore, can take on various meanings depending on who produced it and under what circumstances.

This science studies the context within which the interaction occurs as well as the intention of the language users. Who are the addressees, what is the relation between speakers/writers and hearers/readers, when and where does the speech event occur and so on. Pragmatics also explore how listeners and readers can make inferences about what is said or written in order to arrive at an interpretation of the user’s intended meaning. There are four kinds of context. First, physical context, it is where a conversation and what action takes places, and what objects are present. Second, epistemic context, it is a background knowledge shared by speaker and hearer. The third is linguistic context. It is about the utterance which is followed by other utterances under consideration. Fourth or the last is social context. It is the social relationship and setting of interactive participants. Obviously, the emphasis in this kind of exploration must be placed not only on what is actually said but also on what is not being said explicitly but recognized implicitly as part of the communicative exchange, such as presupposition,  implication, shared knowledge and circumstantial evidence.

Inference in Pragmatics


Since the discourse analyst, like the hearer, has no direct access to a speaker’s intended meaning in producing utterance, interpretation for utterance to arrive at an ances. Such inferences appear to be of different kinds (Brown and Yule, 1983: 33). Inference is the collective term for all possible implicit information, which can be derived from a discourse. The term of inference (from the Latin ‘inferre’ meaning ‘to carry in’) is used to denote the phenomenon that discourse summons up knowledge or information which can be used to understand the information (Renkema, 1993: 158).

In addition, Gumperz (1982: 76) states that inference or drawing conclusion is an interpretation process determined by conversational context or situation. The term ‘inference’ covers quite a broad area of meaning. A number of attempts have been made in the literature to develop a classification system. The two main distinctions made are those between ‘necessary’ and ‘possible’ and between ‘forward’ and ‘backward’.

There are three categories of inference will be examined deductive, elaborative and conversational inference. Each of these categories of inference is closely associated with particular areas of enquiry; deductive inferences with logic and semantics, elaborative inferences with psychology and artificial intelligence and conversational inference with pragmatics. However, it will become clear from subsequent discussion that all of these inference, not just conversational inferences, area integral to an understanding of pragmatic phenomena within a multidisciplinary perspective (Cummings, 2005: 75).

Brown and Yule (1983: 256) describe inference as the process which the reader or the hearer must go through to get from the literal meaning of what is written or said to what the writer or the speaker intended to convey. So, the readers or hearers construct meaning by what they take the words to mean and how the process sentences to find the meaning. Further, Brown and Yule (1983: 225) infer unstated meaning based on the social convention, shared knowledge, shared experience, and shared values. For example when the speaker says:

It’s really noisy here with radio turned up.

It means that what the speaker intended to convey is ‘please turn down the radio’.

Furthermore, sometimes there does not even seem to be much point in what people say, until ones draws an inference (Grundy, 2000: 8). In addition, communication is not merely a matter of a speaker encoding a thought in language sending as spoken message through space, or as written message on paper, to a receiver who decodes it. This is clearly insufficient; the receiver must not must not only decode what is received but also draw an inference as to what is conveyed beyond what is stated (Grundy, 2000: 7). Inference cannot be separated from the reference, because both of them are bound tight together. In inference, the writer or speaker uses linguistic forms to enable reader or listener to identify something. Conversely, in inference listener or readers has to infer correctly which entity the speaker intends to identify by using a particular referring expression, since there is no direct relationship between entities and words (Yule,, 1996: 19). When the hearer or writer has no direct access to the speaker’s or writers intended meaning in producing an utterance, he often has to rely on a process of inference to arrive at an interpretation for utterances or for the connections between utterances (Brown and Yule, 1983: 33).



Presupposition in Pragmatics and Semantics


Grundy (2000: 121) divides presupposition into pragmatic presupposition and semantic presupposition. Pragmatic presupposition is cancelable where inconsistent with speaker or hearer knowledge about the world. Semantic presupposition is non-defeasible, contributes to the truth conditional meaning of the sentences. Brown and Yule (1983: 30) state that all of these presupposition are the speaker’s and all of them can be wrong or can be interpreted in other interpretation, since this sentences not speakers have entailment. Entailment means a term taken from logic, thus what is conveyed in an utterance will typically consist of what is said or entailed on the one hand and what is implied (Grundy, 2000: 81). Then, he asserts that entailments are conventional or semantic meanings that cannot by definition be cancelled without creating contradiction.

Renkema (1993: 154) says that presupposition is used to denote a special type of implicit information. In addition, presupposition is about the existing knowledge common to the speaker or the hearer that the speaker does not therefore need to assert. So, when the speaker or hearer, because of certain knowledge between them, understands certain information, the speaker does not need to assert that information explicitly (Grundy, 2000: 119).


Presupposition in Pragmatics


When someone speaks to us, we typically make all sorts of assumptions about the background to their utterance which we presume to be mutually known before the utterances ever occurred (Grundy, 2000: 120). One further significant category of pragmatics phenomena is presupposition. Presuppositions are variously defined but in general constitute assumptions or inferences that are implicit in particular linguistic expressions. For example, in the following utterance:

The doctor managed to save the baby’s life.

It is assumed that the doctor tried to save the baby’s life. Moreover, this assumption is implicit in the meaning of the verb ‘managed’. Yet this assumption is in no way part of the semantic meaning of this verb (Cummings, 2001: 29-30).The defeasibility of presuppositions cannot be explained by any semantic treatment of this notion that is based on truth conditions – the contextual assumptions that override the presupposition normally attached to ‘manage’ are not part of the truth conditions of the sentence that contains this verb. In order to address issues such as defeasibility, theorists have proposed various pragmatic analyses of presupposition (Cummings, 2005: 32).

Furthermore, Givon in Brown and Yule (1983: 29) defines presupposition as the assumptions the speaker makes about what the hearer is likely to accept without challenge. While Stalnaker still in Brown and Yule (1983: 29) says that presuppositions are what is taken by the speaker to be the common ground of the participants in the conversation. Presupposition as is described by Yule (1996: 27) can be divided into potential and existential presupposition. Potential presupposition related to the use of large number of words, phrase and structures which can only become actual presupposition in context with the speaker. Existential presupposition is not only assumed to be present in possessive constructions, but also more generally in any definite noun phrase.

Politeness Theory: Independence Strategy By Scollon & Scollon

The independence has been defined by Scollon & Scollon in Fatkhurozi (2007: 19) as an aspect which emphasizes the individuality of the participants. This strategy emphasizes the participants' right in order not to be dominated by group or social values and to be free from the impositions of others. Independence shows that the person may act with some degree of autonomy and freedom of movement or choice.

Scollon & Scollon (1995) also stated that independence can be shown by some acts as making minimal assumptions about the needs or interest of others, such as by "not putting words into their mouths," by giving others the widest range of options, or by using more formal names and titles. For example, in ordering in a restaurant we may say, "I don't know if you will want to have rice or noodles", or in making in the initial suggestion to out for coffee we might say "I'd enjoy going out for coffee, but I imagine you are buss". The characteristics of independence can be seen from giving independence to the hearer.

As in case of involvement, there are many ways in which independence can be reflected linguistically. The ten features below have been selected from among the most common used in English. Again, "H" refers to the "Hearer" and "S" to the "Speaker".

1. Make minimal assumptions about H's wants
I don't know if you want to send this by air mail or by speed post.
2. Give H the option not to do the act
I would be nice to have a tea together, but I am sure you are very busy.
3. Minimize threat
a) I just need to borrow a little piece of paper, any scrap will do.
b) I just need a little of your time.
c) Can I talk to you for just a minute.
In this strategy, S tries to make the request by minimizing the favor asked.
4. Apologize
a) I'm sorry to trouble you. Could you tell me the time?
b) I don't want to bother you, but…
c) Can you possibly help me with this, because I can't manage it.
By apologizing S tries not to interrupt on H's negative face.
5. Be pessimistic
a) I don's suppose you'd know the time, would you?
b) If you had a little time to spare for me this afternoon, I'd like to talk
about my paper.
c) There wouldn't suppose be any chance of your being able to lend me
your car for just a few minutes, would there.
This strategy gives compensation to H's negative face by explicitly expressing doubt that S can obtain the expected acts from H.
6. Dissociate S, H from the discourse
This is to inform our employees that…
7. State a general rule
a) Company regulations require that I ask you to leave.
b) Passengers will please refrain from flushing toilets on the train.
c) You will please refrain from flushing toilets on the train.
This strategy is used by manipulation that S does not want to disturb H's face, but what he or she does is forced by the situation.
8. Use family names and titles
a) Mr. Lee, there's a phone call for you.
b) Can I help you, Sir?
c) Excuse me, officer. I think I might have parked in the wrong place.
In this example, H has higher social status than S. So, the S uses the family or the titles of the hearers.
9. Be taciturn
a) Well, if one doesn't leave the gas open when he leaves the house…
b) Well, I really can't see you…
10. Use own language or dialect
a) I was honored by his kaishaku.
b) Takeshi-san, have you seen what happens to the villages that stands in
the way of the railroad?

Politeness Strategies: Scollon & Scollon's Model


Scollon & Scollon (1995: 36 as cited in Fatkhurozi, 2007: 16) said that face is a paradoxical concept. In one side we need to be involved with other participants, in other side we need to maintain some degrees of independence from other participants and to show them that we respect their independence. Both involvement and independence will show the polite behavior that speakers or hearers do. The following are clearer description about these terms.

 Involvement Strategy

The involvement aspect of face is related to the person's right. People need to be considered normal, contributing and supporting the member of society. Someone may shows involvement by participating in a communication. It is shown by paying attention to interlocutors such as showing interest to the topic discussed or using the interlocutors' first name. Watts (2003: 89 as cited in Fatkhurozi, 2007: 17) gives some examples about it, "Jim, you're really good at solving computers problems", "I agree. Right.” Manchester united played really badly last night, didn't they", "I think you've had a bit too much to drink, Jim".
This examples show how someone respects to the interlocutor by involving him/her in communication.
Scollon & Scollon (1995: 40 as cited in Fatkhurozi, 2007: 17) have argued that there are many ways in which involvement can be shown through linguistics forms. The examples below are just ten types which have been selected from English, as also Brown and Levinson said (in Goody, 1996 as cited in Fatkhurozi, 2007: 17). In these examples the letter "H" represents the "Hearer" to whom one is speaking, and "S" represents the "Speaker".
1. Notice or attend to H
a) I like your jacket
b) Are you feeling better today
c) Goodness, you cut your hair! By the way, I came to borrow some flour!
Here, S wants to show his or her understanding and attention to H's condition.
2. Exaggerate (interest, approval, sympathy with H)
a) Please be careful on the steps, they're very slippery.
b) You always do so well in the school.
c) How absolutely marvelous!
Here, S wants to show his or her empathy towards H by exaggerating his or her expression.
3. Claim in-group membership with H
All of us here at economic department. Here, S wants to show H that they are in the same group
4. Claim common point of view, opinions, attitudes, knowledge and
empathy
I know just how you feel. I had a cold like that last week
Here, S wants to satisfy hearer's positive face that is the wants to be liked and appreciated by giving hearer gifts in the forms of goods or compliment. S gives the opinion to H that he or she had same condition last week.
5. Be optimistic
a) I think we should be able to finish that annual report very quickly.
b) I know you're always glad to get a tip or two on gardening, Fred.
c) I'll just help my self to a cookie then-thanks.
Here, S is optimistic that H also wants S's wants. This strategy usually happens among person with close relationship.
6. Indicate S know H's wants and is taking them into account
I'm sure all of you will want to know when this meeting will be over.
7. Assume or assert reciprocity
a) I know that you want to do well in sales this year as much as I want you to do well.
b) I'll do this for you if you do that for me.
c) If you help me with my math homework, I'll mow the lawn after school tomorrow.
Here, the involvement strategy of politeness works by giving evidence of reciprocal rights or obligations between S and H.
8. Use given names and nicknames
Bill, can you get that report to me tomorrow?
9. Be voluble (speak a lot)
I came down the stairs, and what do you think I see? – a huge mess all over the place, the phone's off the hook and clothes are scattered all over. By making good stories in this example, S shares some his or her wants to intensify the interest of S's contribution to the conversation.
10. Use H's language or dialect
a) Mind if I stay here for a while?
b) How about a drink?
c) Got any spare cash.
S can implicitly claim the common ground with H that is carried by that definition of the group.

Politeness Theory


In conversation, there are ways to go about getting the things we want. However, in different social situation we are obliged to adjust our use of language to fit the occasion (Fatkhurozi, 2007:14). It would seem socially unacceptable if people speak the same ways to all kinds of people surrounding them. Brown and Levinson (in Watts, 2003: 34 as cited in Fatkhurozi, 2007: 14) describe politeness as an instrumental system of means to satisfy individual face. Politeness strategies are developed to save the hearer's face. Face refers to the respect that an individual has for him or herself. 

The main concept is about maintaining "face" which consists of two related aspects. First, negative face, which is the want of the member of society in which their action are not imposed by others. Second, positive face, that is the want of the member of society in which they want to be appreciated by others. In this concept generally, people cooperate in maintaining face in interaction. Meanwhile, Holmes (1992 as cited in Fatkhurozi, 2007:14) explains that politeness involves taking account of the feeling of others. A polite person will make others feel comfortable. Being polite linguistically involves speaking to people appropriately in the light of their relationship to others. 

Using an imperative such as stop talking or shut the door to a superior at work is likely to earn the office junior a reprimand. Calling the managing director Sally when you do not know her well and have only just stared work in the typing pool or stationary store is liked to be impolite. Making decisions about what is or is not considered polite in any community, therefore involves accessing social relationship along the dimensions of social distance or solidarity, and relative power or status. We need to understand the social values of a society in order to speak politely (Fatkhurozi, 2007: 14).

Being polite may also involve the dimension of formality. In formal situation the appropriate way of talking to your brother will depend on your roles in context. If he is acting as the judge in a law court then calling him Tom will be considered disrespectful, while at the dinner table calling him your honor will be perceived as equally rude (Fatkhurozi, 2007: 15).

Pidgin and Creoles


A pidgin is a language with no native speakers; it is no one language but is a contact language. It is the products of a multilingual situation in which a simple code of communication is a need. A pidgin is sometimes regarded as a ‘reduced’ variety of a ‘normal’ language, with the simplification of grammar and vocabulary of that language, considerable phonological variation, etc.  In contrast to a pidgin, a ‘creole’ is just a normal language in just about every sense. Like a normal language, creole has native speaker. But similar to pidgin, a creole has a complex relationship to the usually standardized language to which it is associated.

Pidgin and Creole arises from the basic needs that people who speak different language have to find common system of communication which is often known as lingua franca. UNESCO (1953) defines lingua franca as ‘a language which is used habitually by people whose mother tongue are different in order to facilitate communication between them’. A lingua franca can be spoken in a variety of ways. Not only is it spoken differently in places but also individual speakers vary widely in their ability to use the languages.

Machine Translation in the World and Indonesia


A.    Machine Translation In America
USA is the most productive and consumptive country of MT. Since 1950 year, this country had already had thirty-two groups of MT researcher. Moreover, the first using demonstration of MT was also done in this country. As the result, the number of the MT research centre is significantly increasing every year. US has produced many MT programs, those are:
1. SYSTRAN
     It is the oldest MT program that is mostly applied since 1990 year. This direct system is designed by Peter Toma through Gachot Company. SYSTRAN is used by General Motor (Canada), Xerox (Manual Techniques translation), national company of train production (Germany), and the research study centre of nuclear energy.
2. SPANAM and ENGSPAN
    This program is produced by Pan America Health Organization (PAHO) for translating the medical and health documents. ENGSPAN uses the transfer system by primarily rely the syntaxes lexical transfer process and semantics analysis, while SPANAM uses the direct system.
3. Smart Expert Editor (MAX) and Smart Translator (SMART)
MAX and SMART is designed by Smart Communication Inc. MAX uses the ‘rule-based’ system and ‘terminology knowledge based’. Whereas, SMART functions the limited language input (Caterpillar English) and is used to translate the documents into some languages.
Since 1990’s year those programs had been applied by 30 client including Citicorp, Chase, Ford, General Electric, and The Labor Department of Canada (for translating the information of job vacancy from English to France).
4. LOGOS
LOGOS program is designed by Logos Corporation in 1982. At first, this transfer system program is designed for translating Germany to English, but it is also developed fot another language; English-France (in Canada), English-Spain and Germany-France (in Belgian).
LOGOS bilingual dictionary consists of more than 100.000 entries and is completed by the additional entry facility for another word, except verb. Verb is cannot be added because the additional verb needs the complex coding process and it can influence the entire efficiency of the program.
LOGOS has been used by some incorporation such as Ericsson, Osram, Oce Technolog, SAP, Corel etc.
5. METAL
METAL Program is firstly developed in Texas University, but after 1978, it got full sponsor from Siemen Inc. (Germany). METAL uses the transfer system (it is also known as the best adopting program of transfer system in the world) and completed by monolingual and bilingual dictionary. This is a high speed program which can translate until 200 pages per day, by a little post-editing. Post-editing is done by PC workstation. In the output, the user can choose to get the result in two or just one language.
This program is used by some incorporation, such as Boehringer Ingelheim, SAP, Philips and Union Bank of Switzerland.
6. The Products of Carneige Mellon University (CMU)
    CMU has become the central research of MT based on intelligence BUATAN and the biggest Interlingua in USA. One of the products is Knowledge-Based Machine Translation (KBMT), which is based on the assumption that the ideal translating process is not done in linguistics rules only but also including understanding.
B.    Machine Translation in Europe
MT also grows well in the west Europe. Besides the existing of Eurotra project which is handled by European society, some of the countries also do the development of MT separately. Those countries are Germany, Dutch, France, England, Denmark, Ireland, Belgian, Switzerland, and the Scandinavian countries.

1.    Eurotra
Eurotra is the biggest MT project in Europe and even in the world. This project started in 1978 by two aims; making the prototype of MT program for European languages (England, France, Germany, Italy, Latin, Dutch, Denmark, Spain and Portugal) and developing MT skill and the related area of it.
The project centered in University of Essex and University of Manchester Institute of Science MELIBATKAN more than 100 researcher spread in 16 location; Belgian, Denmark, France, Germany, Dutch, Yunnan, Ireland, Italy and Luxemburg.

2.    Germany
SUSY is a program made by Germany. This program is developed by Saarbrucken University. It is used the syntax orientation system transfer. There are many other programs, such as ASCOF, SAFRAN, MARIS, SUSANNAH, TITRAN, etc.
Germany is also developed MT for translating spoken language. This program is called VERMOBIL and funded by The Reset and Technology Ministry of German.

3.    Dutch
MT with Interlingua system had been developed in Dutch in the 1980. There are two famous programs, DLT (Distributed Language Translation) and Rosseta Project. DLT program uses Esperanto as the interlingua, while Rosseta uses innovative exploration of isoformic principles to build the interlingua representation and integration of Montague semantics principles.
Besides that, there is a specific MT program in Dutch. This program is designed by Volmac Lingware Service Software Inc and mostly uses in the textile factory, insurance agency and the airplane center care. This program is translating Dutch, English, French, and Spain languages.

4.    France
The development of MT in French produces such as ARIANE system. This system uses transfer system which is oriented in syntax by the analysis process and generation which happens in every level (morphologist, syntaxes and semantics), it also uses the pragmatic principle and discourse information. Ariane also has been known as the best system transfer beside METAL.

5.    England
England also becomes the center of another MT system beside becomes the center of EUROTRA. Some of the products are prototype program of translating England-Germany called NTRAN. This program uses the concept of Lexical Functional Grammar for parsing process (bottom-up), transfer, and others.
England also provides AIDTRANS (using the direct system which translates Germany to English), SLUNT (using Interlingua system), TRANSPO, ICL (International Computer Ltd., translates the text messages in English-France and England-Germany), and others.
6.    Denmark
      In the 1988, The Winger software Incorporation developed MT for English, Denmark and Spain translation. The program made by many linguists from Kopenhagen University integrates MT with words manufacturing, database and communication system. This program is published in Europe and America.
C.    Machine Translation in Asia
Japan is the most MAJU in MT development among others Asian countries. Moreover, in the beginning of MT publication, Japan had already had two MT research centers. It the other words, Japan’s progressivity in developing MT is equal and even for some models, it is higher than western countries.
Through the project funded by the government and other SWASTA institutions, Japan has produced many MT programs. Those are:
1.   Mu program (system transfer using) developed by Kyoto University.
2.  PIVOT program produced by NEC. This Interlingua system program translates English, Japan, Korean, French, and Spain.
3. ARGO program developed by CSK Tokyo. This is used for translating economic and finance text in English and Japan.
4.   NHK system is used for translating the report articles from English to Japan.
5.   RMT/EJ program, Duet Qt, STAR, Meltran, ASTRANSAC, HICATS, PENSEE, LUTE and many others.
    Beside Japan, Korean is also the country which actively developing MT. Since 1980’s year, the research in Korea is supported by the government and four universities (Seoul, Inha, Hanyang, and Graduate School of KAIST). Some of Korean MT products are HESS (Hangul-English support system) which is used by Korean military for translating database information, e-mail, and etc. MATES, the program developed by System Engineering Research Institute (SERI), is also provided. This transfer system program translates English language into Korean Language.
    In China, the high MINAT about MP research had already been happened since 1950, but this activity temporally stopped in 1960’s year due to the political reason.
    In Malaysia, MT developing project began in the 1979 by MELIBATKAN the researcher of Grenoble and Science University of Malaysia. They developed England-Malay Mt which can be used for translating technique course for middle school. The test done in 1985 for translating the chemistry text book showed that 70% of the translating results can be understood.
D. Machine Translation in Indonesia
    The efforts for MT development in Indonesia are: (1) holding the Linguistics Symposium and Computer Technology in Jakarta in the 26 and 27 of October 1986, (2) the International Trade Ministry and Japan Industry had MEMPRAKARSAI a research project for developing multilingual translating system which can translate Japan language into some Asian languages, including Indonesia, and SEBALIKNYA, (3) the informatics engineering student of ITB through Graphs Laboratory and Intelligence BUATAN also had developed a natural processing program by machine, (3) developing STAJASIA, the question answer system which is able to process the simple Indonesian sentences; declarative, imperative, and interrogative,  (5) TransTool Research and Development had developed translation computer program named TransTool. This programs translates Indonesian text into English text and SEBALIKNYA.
    Some of Indonesian translating product are:
1. ABP System
    It is used as translation instrument that can retrieve some source and target languages.
2. TransTool
     It was produced by the TransTool Research and Development. The form of this machine physically is put in the CD (Compact Disc) that needs to be installed to activate this application. This application requires a hardware and software instrument to facilitate its use. It was functioned to translate word, phrase, sentence and paragraph conversely. However, TransTool effectiveness is much influenced by the computer processor capacity.
3. Artinya MT 2.1
    It is an one-line machine translation program. It was developed in 1998 by PS & B Software. The user who wants to use it should download this application in the internet. Nowadays, this type of machine is divided into two terms: free version and paid version. It uses an ‘indirect’ system which is compose by some features like spelling checkers, updatable dictionary, translation statistics, and so on.
4. Universal Translation
    It was created by Language Force. It was in CD form and was completed by editing and some other facilities. It is used to translate from English to the other target languages.
5. MuST System
    This MT was produced by Edward Hovy and Friends. It is a kind of instrument that picking out the document from the multilingual source and translating or summarizing the text into the target language.
6. Stajasia
    It is an asking-answering program released by BPPT.



Lexical Meaning


Discussing about lexical meaning, there is a currently growing interest in the content of lexical entries from a theoretical perspective as well as a growing need to understand the organization of the lexicon in a text. Lexical semantics has boomed in the meantime. In terms of the structure or detail, lexical semantic research has developed over than twenty years long.

Generally, lexical meaning is the meaning of a word in relation to the physical world or to abstract concepts, without reference to any sentence in which the word may occur. In the other words, it is a linguistic theory that investigates word meaning. This theory understands that the meaning of a word is fully reflected by its context. Here, the meaning of a word is constituted by its contextual relations. Therefore, a distinction between degrees of participation as well as modes of participation are made.. In order to accomplish this distinction any part of a sentence that bears a meaning and combines with the meanings of other constituents is labeled as a semantic constituent. Semantic constituents that can not be broken down into more elementary constituents is labeled a minimal semantic constituent.

Analysis of the lexical meaning of An Original Soundtrack of Little Mermaid Movie titled ‘Under The Sea’


A.    The Song Lyrics
Listen it
We’re the animal sea
Check it out
The seaweed is always greener
In somebody else's lake
You dream about going up there
But that is a big mistake
Just look at the world around you
Right here on the ocean  floor
Such wonderful things surround you
What more is you lookin' for?

Under the sea (2x)
Darling it's better
Down where it's wetter
Take it from me
Up on the shore they work all day
Out in the sun they slave away
While we devotin'
Full time to floatin'
Under the sea

Down here all the fish are happy
As off through the waves they roll
The fish on the land ain't happy
Being the slave of the chef
And chef has been prepared the cooking and dining set   
They sad 'cause they’re  in their bowl
But fish in the bowl is lucky
They in for a worser fate
One day when the boss get hungry
Guess who's gonna  be on the plate

Under the sea (2x)
Nobody beat us
Fry  us and eat us
In fricassee
We what the land folks loves to cook
Under the sea we off the hook
We got no troubles (difficult situation, worry)
We got no problems
Life is the bubbles
Under the sea
Under the sea
Since life is sweet here
We got the beat here
Naturally
Even the sturgeon an' the ray
They get the urge  'n' start to play
We got the spirit
You got to hear it
Under the sea

Oh, yeah…prepare your musical instrument!
The newt play the flute
The carp play the harp
The plaice play the bass
And they soundin' sharp
The bass  play the brass
The chub play the tuba
The fluke is the duke of soul
(Yeah)
The ray he can play
The lings on the strings
The trout  rockin' out
The blackfish  she sings
The smelt  and the sprat
They know where it's at
An' oh that blowfish blow

Under the sea (2x)
When the sardine
Begin the beguine
It's music to me
What do they got? Too lot of sand
we got a hot crustacean band
Each little clam here
know how to jam here
Under the sea
Each little slug here
Cuttin' a rug here
Under the sea
Each little snail here
Know how to wail here
That's why it's too hot
Under the water
Ya we in luck here
Down in the muck here
Under the sea

B.    The Analysis
1.    Denotation
Denotation is the meaning of word which is primarily refers to the real world and this is often the definition that is given in dictionary.

2.    Connotation
Connotation arise as words become related with certain characteristic of item to which they refer, or the association of positive or negative feelings to which they evokes, which may or may not be indicated in the dictionary definition. The positive connotation in the lyrics is ‘muck’, in the lyric ‘Down in the muck here’, the dictionary definition of ‘muck’is ‘the condition that is unpleasant’, but here the meaning of ‘muck’ is the condition which even live under the sea with all creatures there is very noisy but it makes them happy because they always have fun together.

3.    Ambiguity
     A word or a sentence is ambiguous if it can be undrstood or interpreted in more than one way (Fromkin et.al, 1990). The different words having same form or pronunciation may cause ambiguity among listeners or readers who do not pay attention to their context carefully. Among the different words having same form or pronunciation are:
a.     Homonyms (different words having same form)
·    slave ( a person who is legally owned by another person)
       slave (work very hard)   
·    bass (an electric guitar that plays very low note)
   bass ( a sea or freshwater fish that is used for food)
·    slave ( a person who is legally owned by another person)
slave (work very hard)   
·    bass (an electric guitar that plays very low note)
bass ( a sea or freshwater fish that is used for food)
b.    Homophones (different word which are pronounced the same)
·    To (used before the base form of a verb to show that the verb is the infinitive. The infinitive is used after many verbs and also many nouns and adjectives)
        Too (used before adjectives and adverbs to say that sth is more that is good, necessary,   possible)

4.    Antonym
The word antonym derives from the Greek root anti- (‘opposite’) and denotes oposition in meaning. In contrast to synonymy and hyponymy, antonymy is a binary relationship that can characterize a relationship between only two words at a time. Terms A and B are antonyms if, when A describes a referent, B cannot describe the same referent, and vice versa. The antonyms found in this song lyrics are:
·    happy (feeling or showing pleasure) >< sad (uhappy or showing unhappiness)
·    up (moving upwards) >< down (to force something down)
·    land (the surface of the earth that is not  sea) >< sea (the salt water that covers most of the earth’s surface and surrounds its continents and island)   

5.    Synonym
Two words are said to be synonymous if they mean the same thing. To addres the notion of synonymy more formally, we can say that term A is synonymous with term B if every referrent of A is a referent of B and vice versa. The synonyms found in this song lyrics are:
·    listen = hear (to be away of sounds by your ears or to pay attention to somebody/something that you can hear)
·    ocean = sea (the mass of salt water that covers most of the earth’s surface and surrounds its continents and island)
·    troubles = problems (difficult situation, worry)   
·    slug = snail (a small soft creature, with or without a hard round shell on its back, that moves very slowly and often eats garden plants )



6.    Hyponymy
A hyponym is a subordinate, specific term whose referent is included in the referent of a superordinate term and the relationship between each of the lower term (hyponym) and the higher term (superordinate) is called hyponymy.
·    cook (to prepare food by heating it, for example by boliling, baking or frying it) is superordinate of fry (to cook something in hot fat or oil)
·    fish is superordinate of :
a.    sturgeon (a large sea and freshwater fish that lives in nothern region . Strurgeon are used for foods and the eggs (called caviar) are also eaten)
b.    ray ( a seafish with a large broad flat body and long tail that is used for food)
c.   carp (a large freshwater fish that is used for the food)
d.   plaice ( a flat sea fish that is used for food)
e.   bass ( a sea or freshwater fish that is used for food)
f.    chub (a freshwater fish with athick body)
g.   fluke (a flat fish)
h.   ray ( a sea fish with a large broad flat body and long tail that is used for food)
i.    trout (a common freshwater fish that is used for food. There are several types of trout: rainbow trout, trour fishing)
j.    blackfish (a fish in a black coloured)
k.   smelt (a small fish bait)
l.    blowfish
n.   sprat (a very small European sea fish that is used for food)
o.   sardine (a small young sea fish that is either eaten fresh or preserved in tins/cans)
·    animal is superordinate of:
a.    fish (sturgeon, ray, carp, plaice, bass, chub,  fluke, ray, trout, blackfish, smelt blowfish, sprat, sardine)
b.    crustacean (any creature with a soft body that is divided into sections, and a hard outer shell. Most crustaceans live in water)
c.    clam (a shellfish that can be eaten. It has a shell in two parts that can open and close) 
d.    slug (a small soft creature, a snail with without a shell, that moves very slowly and often eats garden plants )
e.    snail (a small soft creature with a hard round shell on its back, that moves very slowly and often eats garden plants)
f.    newt (a small animal with short legs, a long tail and a cold blood, that lives both in water and on land)
·    dining set is superordinate of:
a.    bowl (a deep round dish with a wide open top, used specially for holding food or liquid)
b.    plate (a flat, usually round, dish that you put on)   
·    musical instrument is superordinate of:
a.    flute ( a musical instrument of the wood-wind group shaped like a tin pipe. The player holds it sideways and blows across a hole at one end)
b.    bass (an electric guitar that plays very low note)
      c.    harp (a large musical instrument with strings streched on vertical frame, played with the fingers)
d.    brass (the musical instrument made of metals, such as trumpets or french horns, that form a band or section of an orchestra)
e.    tuba ( a large brass musical instrument that you play by blowing, and that produces low notes)

7.  Polysemy
Polysemy (or multiple meaning) is a property of single lexemes; and this is what differentiates it, in principles, from homonymy.

Language; Discourse and Text

Discourse

Originally the word 'discourse' comes from Latin 'discursus' which denoted 'conversation, speech'. According to some linguist, they have illustrated by the following definition: Discourse is a continuous stretch of (especially spoken) language larger than a sentence, often constituting a coherent unit such as a sermon, argument, joke, or narrative" (Crystal 1992:25). On the other hand Dakowska, being aware of differences between kinds of discourses indicates the unity of communicative intentions as a vital element of each of them.
There are seven criteria which have to be fulfilled to qualify either a written or a spoken text as a discourse has been suggested by Beaugrande (1981).

These include:
·    Cohesion - grammatical relationship between parts of a sentence essential for its interpretation;
·    Coherence - the order of statements relates one another by sense.
·    Intentionality - the message has to be conveyed deliberately and consciously;
·    Acceptability - indicates that the communicative product needs to be satisfactory in that the audience approves it;
·    Informativeness - some new information has to be included in the discourse;
·    Situationality - circumstances in which the remark is made are important;
·    Intertextuality - reference to the world outside the text or the interpreters' schemata;

Nowadays, however, not all of the above mentioned criteria are perceived as equally important in discourse studies, therefore some of them are valid only in certain methods of the research (Beaugrande 1981, cited in Renkema 2004:49).

3.2    Text
What is text? The answer that is often given is that a text is a sequence of sentence. This answer is clearly unsatisfactory. Text is two or more utterances that must be cohesion or connectedness one to another.

A long tradition of text linguistics that has persisted in northern Europe made some attempts about the text analysis. First, it began with attempts to account for how sentences are linked together using linguistics resources. Than, Werlich (1976) described of how linguistic features characterize strategies used in different text type (narrative, descriptive, expository and argumentative). Likewise, the prague school and it’s followers, among whom was Michael hallyday, focused on how the construction of individual construction in terms of their theme (their starting point) and rheme (what was being said about the topic) contributed to the larger pattern of information in extended texts (see fries 1983; eiler 1986; francis 1989; firbas 1992)

For example:
Werlich was enormously influential among German EFL teachers.
The explanation from the example above is that the theme (the starting point- usually the grammatical subject) is werlich, and the rheme is what is said about him (that he was enormously influential). We can repeat different number of theme over a number of sentences, and use the rheme of the one sentence in the theme of the next sentence are among the preoccupations of the prague school linguist, and they represent a major strand of functional (as defined in halliday 1997: 16) approaches to text.

    There are approaches in analyses text. First is concerning the cognitive processing of extended writing texts, and second is rethorical structure analysis.

1.    Concerning the cognitive processing of extended writing texts.
       The steps of this approaches are:
o    we need to activate a necessary scheme (or mental presentation)
o    we have to infer (if we do not know it). Since this is not stated explicitly.
o    we need to give the implicit meaning.

Text and Discourse


Actually there is no agreement among linguists as to the use of the term discourse in that some use it in reference to texts, while others claim it denotes speech. Consequently, she suggests using terms 'text' and 'discourse' almost interchangeably betokening the former refers to the linguistic product, while the latter implies the entire dynamics of the processes (Dakowska 2001:81). According to Cook (1990:7) novels, as well as short conversations or groans might be equally rightfully named discourses. But, sometimes there is a distinction made between text and discourse.

Text is the products of language use. For example: public notice saying cycling forbidden, novel, an academic article, or indeed a transcript of a conversation. Whereas, discourse is the process of meaning-creation and interaction, whether in writing or in speech. Such as: communication and feed back. It means that Discourse inclined to verbal communication. Both approaches have made significant contributions to applied linguistics, and go beyond the notion of language in social context, that is to say attending to the producers and receiver of language as much as to the language forms themselves.

The clearer explanation will be explained the next article.

An Introduction To Linguistics

A. What is linguistics?
 Linguistics is the study about the language. It examines the nature, structure, history and the variation in language. 

In general, linguistics is divided into three broad categories; language form, language meanng and language context.

In the study of the nature and structure of language, we study about the grammar, phonology, morphology, and syntax. 

In the area of language meaning, we study about semantics and pragmatics while in the area of context, we can learn the language in terms of interdicsiplinary relations. for example, if you study about the realtion of language and society, your field study is about sociolinguistics. If it examines the relationship between language and thought, it is in the area of psycholinguistics. If you study about language and the brain, it is in the area of neurolinguistics.
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