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Tampilkan postingan dengan label Cultural Studies. Tampilkan semua postingan

Characteristics of Slang Language

Some of slang expressions are acceptable and the others are a rude and impolite. Words or phrases may be considered as slang if they fulfill one or more these characteristics (Slang of Duke.http://www.epinions.com):
1. Creative
Slang is created from a new term, so it needs the creativity of the creator. The creator is encouraged to produce new terms, which are imaginative, innovative, productive, even shocking, and amusing. The example of teenagers’ creativity is creating slang terms from the existing words. In this case, teenagers still use the original words, but acquire a new meaning, which is different from its original meaning. Some of them is constructed from the kind of colors, animals, and numbers,
2. Flippant
It means, slang produced has irrelevant meaning with the context. That makes this term considered as a rude, for instance, fucking chicken, bitch, motherfucker, and shit.

Reduce Your Prostate Cancer Risk With Coffee


Drinking a coffee has been an inseparable lifestyle for the people in this era. it recognizes a lot of various taste in coffee. Those are from moccacino, chapuccino, latte, even a tradtional taste like Tubruk Coffee which is popular in Indonesia or a very expensive one, Kopi Luwak (Luwak Coffee). Some people are even willing to go overseas to study about coffee, to discover the new taste for a coffee.

Drinking coffee is not merely to relieve your sleepy feeling or to strengthen the spirit for your daily activties. This beverage is able to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. People who drink more than six cups of coffee in a day will have 20 percent less possible to suffer that serious disease. The risk is lower than 60 percent for the people to suffer other type of cancer.

      The study invites 48 thousand men who work in the field of health to participate in the research. They were asked to report their average consumption for drinking coffee in a day from 1986 to 2006.

      There is no differences found between the effects of caffeinated coffee and non caffeinated coffee. Thus, it is possible to coffee consists of compounds that can protect the body from prostate cancer. However, Helen Rippon, a doctor from The Prostate Cancer Charity, would not recommend their patients to drink coffee. Excessive consumption can make the symptoms of benign prostatic even worse, "he said. The early symptoms of prostate disease is usually difficult in the process of urination.

Structuralism and Claude Levi Strauss


Claude Lévi-Strauss is the best known and most influential structuralist. Because of his influence, Lévi-Strauss is an excellent example of structuralist approaches. The main influence on the work Lévi-Strauss' work is multifaceted and that he was influenced not only by other anthropologists but also by linguists, geologists and others. Lévi-Strauss brings into anthropology these and other influences which have shaped his thinking and anthropological thought through his work. The main aspects of Lévi-Strauss' work can be summarized under three headings, they are:
a)    Alliance Theory
Lévi-Strauss' theoretical contributions to social anthropology are numerous and significant. The best known of these is "alliance theory." Alliance theory stresses the importance of marriage in society as opposed to the importance of descent. Its basic supposition is that the exchange of women between groups of related men results in greater social solidarity, and that the result of this cohesion is better chances of survival for all members of the resultant kin group. Lévi-Strauss' claims that the regulating of marriages through prescription and preference and the proscription of other types of marriage creates a "exchange" of women in simple societies. This interchange, accompanied by exchanges of gifts, ensures the cooperation of the members of these groups.
His analysis of the incest taboo is fascinating. For Lévi-Strauss the link between nature and culture in humankind comes from this universal proscription. In the incest taboo nature transcends itself and creates culture as the controlling element of human behavior. Sex and other drives are regulated by culture, man has become a cultural entity.
b)    Human Mental Processes
There is unity in the way the human mind functions. Lévi-Strauss claims that, although the manifestations may be very different, the human mental processes are the same in all cultures. The unity of the mental processes results from the biology of the human brain and the way it works. As a result of this unity, e.g. the classification of the universe by "primitive man" has the same basis as when it is done by any group, it is done through models. The fact that resultant models of this classification may be different is irrelevant for him. The analysis of myth in Lévi-Strauss is also based on the premise about the unity of the human mind.

c)    Structural Analysis of Myth
Lévi-Strauss' work on myth parallels his interest in mental processes. He attempts to discover unconscious the regularities of the human mind. The use of the structuralist models of myth allows for the reduction of material studied to manageable levels. The dominant manner to accomplish this goal is based on the use of the following concepts:
1.    Surface and Deep Structure
To discover the model/structure of a myth one must explore the deep structure of a myth. The surface structure provides us with the narrative, the deep structure with an explication of the myth. This is accomplished by discovering the major binary opposition(s) in the deep structure.
2.    Binary oppositions
These occur in nature and naturally in the human mind. They are such things as night and day, left and right or nature and culture. Nature and culture often functions as a binary opposition in tales. However, depending on the tale or myth the binary opposition changes. For example, the binary opposition life and death is a useful one to explicate "Sleeping Beauty." Here, the deep structure of the story suggests that when the thirteenth fairy declares that Sleeping Beauty is to die at her fifteenth birthday that a life versus death binary opposition is posited. A mediation to solution the problem is now necessary.
3.    Mediation
A binary opposition can be mediated by finding a solution to the opposition created by the binary. The mediation to the culture/nature binary opposition is that culture transcends nature. In the case of "Sleeping Beauty" the nature of the mediation is quite different but equally embedded in within the subject matter. Here the life versus death binary opposition is mediated by the twelve fairy's action: death is transformed into one hundred years sleep.

Hegemony Theory

The word of hegemony is from Greek, from the word ‘hegeisthai’ meaning ‘to lead’. Cultural hegemony is the philosophic and sociological concept, originated by the Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci, that a culturally-diverse society can be ruled or dominated by one of its social classes. It is the dominance of one social group over another, e.g. the ruling class over all other classes. The theory claims that the ideas of the ruling class come to be seen as the norm; they are seen as universal ideologies, perceived to benefit everyone whilst really benefiting only the ruling class. The dominant class controls ideological space and limits what is thinkable in society. Dominated classes participate in their domination, as hegemony enters into everything people do and think of as natural, or the product of common sense—including what is news, as well as playing, working, believing, and knowing.

            Actually, hegemony is a balance between the political Society and civil Society or hegemony of a social group over the entire national society, exercised through the so-called private organizations, such as the Church, the unions, the schools (Gramsci 1994c. ). Hegemony is thus an ideological dominance of society, in which the subordinate levels of society allow the ruling class to exercise social and economic dominance, with the consent of the subordinate classes in the support of the common good. In Gramsci's view, political forces aiming at social change can only gain the upper hand if they are able to mobilize and take charge in society on their own premises (Englestad, 2003).

 The central idea of this theory is the stability of the International System requires a single dominant state to articulate and enforce the rules of interaction among the most important members of the system.

That the concept of hegemony works is evident in that marxism has been able to flourish in the Western Capitalist world and Gramsci's theory of hegemony has been explored further by Althuser, Laclau and Chomsky .

The existance of Hegemony theory nowadays



An example of consent via gentle persuasion and enforcement (force) of a national cultural perspective, could be found in the New Zealand anti-smoking stance, or "Smoke Free New Zealand." Via the media, government departments and places of learning, smoking has been labeled so socially evil, that the idea of smoking in public has become shameful and socially unacceptable. The prohibitive cost of tobacco is punitive and laws have been passed to enforce where people may smoke. (Force). I would argue that the cultural ideology of a smoke free society in New Zealand has been introduced in a hegemonistic way.

Another example is by the fact that we all live in societies where there are power structures. According to Gramsci's theory of hegemony, these systems of power cannot be maintained by force alone. People have to do things, willingly and happily, in their everyday lives that keep the powerful people on top. Coercion alone does not work. If the President of the United States threatened to put to death Americans who did not hang flags from their homes, that president would be overthrown. However, plenty of Americans hang flags from their homes willingly and happily, and this is an everyday behavior that helps the government remain in power.

Hegemony and Marxism


            Hegemony is unavoidable for Marxism; it is either a strong reinforcement of Marx’s theories or a contradiction of them. In an important document, the Preface to A Critique of Political Economy (1859), Marx wrote:
            The mode of production of material life conditions the social, political and intellectual life process in general. It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being, but, on the contrary, their social being that determines their consciousness.
            This is the classic statement of historical materialism. Does not Gramsci’s notion of hegemony run flatly counter to Marx’s words? Gramsci himself, however, thought that his own ideas improved upon Marx rather than discredited him. He said that the materialism expressed in the words just quoted were not truly Marxist but ‘must be contested in theory as primitive infantilism, and combated in practice with the authentic testimony of Marx.’ This dispute has never been definitively settled; Marxists in the USSR tended to follow the harsher view - that life is determined by material factors; Western Marxists have, on the whole, favored Gramsci’s view that ideas are at least equally important.
            Gramsci, has some very interesting theories about the role of intellectuals, both in revolutionary movements and in society in general. It is, also, fascinating to look at the many examples in History of groups or classes in societies who owe their power in whole or in part to their intellectual and moral superiority. One may think of the Catholic Church down the ages, and of priesthoods in general. There is the hegemony, up to recent times, in the USA of WASPs - White Anglo-Saxon Protestants. There was the British culture in India under the Raj, and the ‘nomenklatura’ of the USSR.  Nomenklatura means a small elite group within the Soviet Union and other Eastern Bloc countries who held various key administrative positions in all spheres of those countries' activity: government, industry, agriculture, education, etc., whose positions were granted only with approval by the communist party of each country or region.
            Here are the basic differences between Gramsci’s hegemony and Marx’s marxism: Gramsci supports capitalism, while Marxism is basic theory of modern communism.  Also, Gramsci creates cultural hegemony theory as way to keep the sustainability of capitalism; while Marx thinks that capitalism makes the workers live miserably.

References
Englestad, F. (Ed.). (2003). Introductory chapter. In Power,culture,hegemony. Introduction to comparative social research (Vol. 21) . Oxford: Elsevier science. Retrieved January 15, 2008, from Institute for social research Web site

Language and Disadvantages


There is an agreement among the linguists that there is no variety of language as inherently much better than the any other. All languages and varieties are equal. A standard of a variety is ‘better ‘ only in a social sense; it has a preferred status. It gives the users a certain social benefits, and it increases their life chances.

Bernstein and Codes

Bernstein is interested in the process of socialization, on how the children acquires  and responds a particular cultural identity. He views of the relationship between language and cultures appear to have been heavily influenced by the Whorf hypothesis. According to him, there is a serious effect for the children of the lower working class who go to the school because the elaborated code is the medium of the interaction in schooling while a child from the middle class is oriented through to language to principles as these deals with objects and persons, and accessible to the system through which knowledge is acquired.

This British sociologist believes that the English social class system does not allow the low working class easy access to the elaborated codes. Members of that class restrictedly use the code that limits the intellectual horizons of the speakers.

Black English

Black English has certain characteristics in terms of phonology, morphology and syntax. Phonologically, there are likely to be far more homophones in Black English rather than in standard varieties of the languages. In morphology, because t and d are often unpronounced, there is no clear signal of past tense. While in syntactical area, Black English has special use of be or lack of be.

One of the most interesting characteristics of Black English is above-mentioned used of the zero copula while zero copula os rarely found in the White speeches, even poor White Southerners. There is such a variety of English as Black English in the US. Those who speak it recognize that what they speak is something different from the varieties employed by most non-blacks. What is an interesting topic for sociolinguists is children from Black English are usually perceived to bring with them to school a problem that appears directly from speaking such a variety.

Some Consequences for Educations

There is a misunderstanding about Black English, in the characteristics and how it is used. Many educators interprets that Black English, especially children, are deficient in language ability. They lack ability to use language as device to acquire and process the information. In this view, Black English children suffer a verbal deprivation and it was the duty and responsibilities of educators to supply them with one.


(Further Reading: Introduction to Sociolinguistics by Ronald Wardaugh,)

Pembangunan Pertanian dan Pedesaan



1.      Pertanian di Negara berkembang
Pada umumnya Negara berkembang adalah Negara pertanian, dalam arti bahwa bagian terbesar Produk Domestik Brutonya (PDB) Negara yang bersangkutan, pada umumnya berasal dari sektor pertanian ini. Untuk kelompok negara-negara berkembang berpendapatan rendah pada tahun 1988 persentase bagian sector pertaniannya adalah rata-rata sebesar 33%, di mana pada beberapa Negara diantaranya jauh lebih tinggi lagi, seperti Tanzania 66%, Somalia 62% dan Uganda 72%. Untuk kelompok Negara berkembang berpendapatan menengah adalah rata-rata 12%, padahal pada Negara-negara industry barat adalah rata-rata hanya 5%.
Pertumbuhan sektor pertanian ini di Negara-neraga berkembang selama kurun waktu 1980-1988 adalah relative lambat jika dibandingkan dengan sektor-sektor ekonomi lainnya, seperti pada Negara berkembang berpendapatan rendah pertumbuhan sektor pertanian hanya 4.4% sedangkan sektor industri 8,7%. Dan pada Negara berkembang berpendapatan menengah pertumbuhan sector pertaniannya hanya 2,7% sedangkan sektor industry 3,5%. Pada dasarnya rendahnya pertumbuhan sektor pertanian terutama disebabkan oleh rendahnya produktivitas pada sektor ini.
Karena produktivitas yang rendah dari sector pertanian di Negara-negara berkembang pada umumnya, maka penduduk yang tergolong miskin di sector ini pada umumnya terdapat di daerah pedesaan. Mereka ini pada umumnya berjuang untuk sekedar dapat bertahan hidup dan dalam kondisi keterbelakangan. Karena itu, apabila tujuan pembangunan pada tahap-tahap awal pembangunan adalah untuk menghapuskan atau memerangi kemiskinan, maka pembangunan harus dimulai dan difokuskan pada daerah pedesaan ini.
Produktivitas yang rendah di sector pertanian ini menurut Todaro terutama disebabkan oleh :
a.    Peralatan yang dipergunakan masih sangat sederhana, sedangkan dibeberapa daerah binatang sebagai tenaga kerja tidak dapat dikerahkan karena merajalelanya hama tanaman di musim panas yang panjang sehingga pekerjaan di lapangan harus dikerjakan secara berhati-hati oleh tenaga manusia.
b.    Cara bercocok tanamnya masih banyak yang berupa peladangan berpindah dan pada lahan yang kurang stabil. Namun cara ini sekarang sudah tidak mungkin dilakukan lagi karena jumlah penduduk yang telah meningkat dengan relative cepat, sedangkan lahan yang tersedia semakin terbatas.
c.    Factor juga yang membatasi peningkatan produktivitas pertanian adalah kekurangan tenaga kerja pada saat-saat sibuk, yakni pada waktu musim tanam dan musim panen.
2.      Peranan Sektor Pertanian Dalam Pembangunan
Peranan sektor pertanian dalam pembangunan yang utama diantaranya adalah sehubungan dengan pertimbangan-pertimbangan yang berikut :
a.       Sebagian besar penduduk di Negara-negara berkembang memiliki usaha dan menggantungkan hidupnya pada sector pertanian.
b.      Sector pertanian di Negara berkembang merupakan sumber utama untuk pemenuhan kebutuhan pokok terutama pangan.
c.       Sector pertanian merupakan sumber atau penyedia input tenaga kerja yang sangat besar untuk menunjang pembangunan sektor-sektor lainnya terutama industry.
d.      Sector pertanian dapat juga berperan sebagai sumber dana dan daya yang utama dalam menggerakkan dan memacu pertumbuhan ekonomi di sebagian besar Negara berkembang.
Sector pertanian merupakan pasar yang potensial bagi hasil output sector modern di perkotaan yang ditumbuhkembangkan

Roland Barthes and Structuralism

 
Barthes spent the early 1960s exploring the fields of semiology and structuralism, leading various faculty positions around France, and continuing to produce more full-length studies. Many of his works challenged traditional academic views of literary criticism and of famous figures of literature. His unorthodox thinking led to a conflict with another French thinker, Raymond Picard, who attacked the French New Criticism (a label that he inaccurately applied to Barthes) for its obscurity and lack of respect towards France's literary roots. Barthes' refutation in Criticism and Truth (1966) accused the old, bourgeois criticism of a lack of concern with the finer points of language and of selective ignorance towards challenging theories, such as Marxism.

Barthes's work with structuralism began to flourish around the time of his debates with Picard, his investigation of structure focused on revealing the importance of language in writing, which he felt was overlooked by old criticism. Barthes's "Introduction to the Structural Analysis of Narratives" is concerned with examining the correspondence between the structure of a sentence and that of a larger narrative, thus allowing narrative to be viewed along linguistic lines. Barthes split this work into three hierarchical levels: ‘functions’, ‘actions’ and ‘narrative’.

Post-Structuralism

Post-structuralism means to go beyond the structuralism of theories that imply a rigid inner logic to relationships that describe any aspect of social reality, whether in language (Ferdinand de Saussure or, more recently, Noam Chomsky) or in economics (orthodox Marxism, neoclassicalism, or Keynesianism).

Post-structuralism recognizes the power of discourse to shape reality (both perceptions of reality and the concrete reality that is perceived). Discourse (theory) can produce sight of fictive objects, such as race (as in white race), or deny sight of real social relationships/objects, such as class (as in feudal class relationships).

Post-structuralism emerged in France during the 1960s as an antinomian movement critiquing structuralism. The period was marked by political anxiety, as students and workers alike rebelled against the state in May 1968, nearly causing the downfall of the French government. At the same time, however, the support of the French Communist Party (FCP) for the oppressive policies of the USSR contributed to popular disillusionment with orthodox Marxism. As a result, there was increased interest in alternative radical philosophies, including feminism, western Marxism, anarchism, phenomenology, and nihilism. These disparate perspectives, which Michel Foucault later labeled "subjugated knowledges," were all linked by being critical of dominant Western philosophy and culture. Post-structuralism offered a means of justifying these criticisms, by exposing the underlying assumptions of many Western norms.

Structuralism and Ferdinand De Saussure


These influential theories of the second half of the twentieth century, all of which are focused on language, have their origins in the linguistic theory of Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913), he defines the proper object of linguistic study as the system of signs used by human beings, and the relationships of which can be studied in the abstract, or as he says “synchronicity” rather than “diachronically.” In other words, there is no reference to any particular historical implementation of that language.

According to Saussure, the basic unit of language is a sign.  A sign is composed of signifier (a sound-image, or its graphic equivalent) and a signified (the concept or meaning).  So, for example, a word composed of the letters p-e-a-r functions as a signifier by producing in the mind of English-speakers the concept (signified) of a certain kind of rosaceous fruit that grows on trees, viz., a pear.

Saussure’s way around this obvious objection is to say that his interest is in the structure of  language, not the use of language.  As a scientist, Saussure limited his investigation to the formal structure of language (langue), setting aside or bracketing the way that language is employed in actual speech (parole).  Hence, the term structuralism.  Saussure bracketed out of his investigation any concern with the real, material objects (referents) to which signs are presumably related.  This bracketing of the referent is a move that enabled him to study the way a thing (language and meaning) is experienced in the mind.  In this sense, his motivation was similar to Husserl's.  And in the end, Saussure never offered a method for investigating how language as a system hooks up to the world of objects that lie outside language.  As we shall see, this was to have far-reaching effects.

Structuralism and Claude Levi Strauss


Claude Lévi-Strauss is the best known and most influential structuralist. Because of his influence, Lévi-Strauss is an excellent example of structuralist approaches. The main influence on the work Lévi-Strauss' work is multifaceted and that he was influenced not only by other anthropologists but also by linguists, geologists and others. Lévi-Strauss brings into anthropology these and other influences which have shaped his thinking and anthropological thought through his work. The main aspects of Lévi-Strauss' work can be summarized under three headings, they are:

a)    Alliance Theory
Lévi-Strauss' theoretical contributions to social anthropology are numerous and significant. The best known of these is "alliance theory." Alliance theory stresses the importance of marriage in society as opposed to the importance of descent. Its basic supposition is that the exchange of women between groups of related men results in greater social solidarity, and that the result of this cohesion is better chances of survival for all members of the resultant kin group. Lévi-Strauss' claims that the regulating of marriages through prescription and preference and the proscription of other types of marriage creates a "exchange" of women in simple societies. This interchange, accompanied by exchanges of gifts, ensures the cooperation of the members of these groups.

His analysis of the incest taboo is fascinating. For Lévi-Strauss the link between nature and culture in humankind comes from this universal proscription. In the incest taboo nature transcends itself and creates culture as the controlling element of human behavior. Sex and other drives are regulated by culture, man has become a cultural entity.
b)    Human Mental Processes

There is unity in the way the human mind functions. Lévi-Strauss claims that, although the manifestations may be very different, the human mental processes are the same in all cultures. The unity of the mental processes results from the biology of the human brain and the way it works. As a result of this unity, e.g. the classification of the universe by "primitive man" has the same basis as when it is done by any group, it is done through models. The fact that resultant models of this classification may be different is irrelevant for him. The analysis of myth in Lévi-Strauss is also based on the premise about the unity of the human mind.

c)    Structural Analysis of Myth
Lévi-Strauss' work on myth parallels his interest in mental processes. He attempts to discover unconscious the regularities of the human mind. The use of the structuralist models of myth allows for the reduction of material studied to manageable levels. The dominant manner to accomplish this goal is based on the use of the following concepts:

1.    Surface and Deep Structure
To discover the model/structure of a myth one must explore the deep structure of a myth. The surface structure provides us with the narrative, the deep structure with an explication of the myth. This is accomplished by discovering the major binary opposition(s) in the deep structure.

2.    Binary oppositions
These occur in nature and naturally in the human mind. They are such things as night and day, left and right or nature and culture. Nature and culture often functions as a binary opposition in tales. However, depending on the tale or myth the binary opposition changes. For example, the binary opposition life and death is a useful one to explicate "Sleeping Beauty." Here, the deep structure of the story suggests that when the thirteenth fairy declares that Sleeping Beauty is to die at her fifteenth birthday that a life versus death binary opposition is posited. A mediation to solution the problem is now necessary.

3.    Mediation
A binary opposition can be mediated by finding a solution to the opposition created by the binary. The mediation to the culture/nature binary opposition is that culture transcends nature. In the case of "Sleeping Beauty" the nature of the mediation is quite different but equally embedded in within the subject matter. Here the life versus death binary opposition is mediated by the twelve fairy's action: death is transformed into one hundred years sleep.

Phonological Acquisition 2

As we know that phonology is studying of the language sounds, how they are organized to form words. The human is learning how to pronounce the words of their language.  The phonological acquisition refers to the process of the human in acquiring or absorbing the language in terms of phonological aspects like substitution, assimilation, reduction or addition, etc. there are two parts in acquiring a language: to articulate consonants, vowels, syllables, words; and learning to represent words.

Stages in Acquisition
1.    Pre –language stages
The period of this stage is about 3 to 11 months. There are three stages of sound production in infant’s developing repertoires which are characterized in this stage. The first recognizable sound described as cooing with velar [k] and [g] usually present as well as high vowels such as [i] and [u]. By 6 months, the child is usually able to produce a number of different vowels and consonants such as fricatives and nasals. This sound production at this stage is described as babbling. By 9 up to 11 months, there are recognizable intonations to the consonants and vowels combinations being produced. Then they are capable to use their vocalization to express emotion and emphasis. This stage is described as late babbling.
2.      The one-word or holophrastic stage
Between 12 and 18 months, children begin to produce a variety of recognizable single unit utterances. This stage is characterized by speech in which single terms are uttered for everyday objects, such as “milk”, and “cookie”.
3.    The two-word stage
This stage can begin around 18-20 months, depending on what one counts as an occurrence of two separate words. In this stage, a variety of combinations will be appearing, such as, baby chair, mommy eat, etc. The phrase baby chair here may be taken as an expression of possession, or as a request, or even as a stetement.
4.    Telegraphic speech
Between 2 and three years old, the child will begin producing a large number of utterances which could be classified as multiple-word utterances. The child has early developed some sentences-building capacity by this stage and can order the forms correctly.

Phonological Acquisition


BACKGROUND

Students of all ages may find them hard to read, and we know from various research report that, in English at least, the difficulty is largely alingustic one (Halliday and Martin,1996:24). Here, we want to describe about phonology, acquisition, language acquisition, and phonological acquisition.

Phonology is studies the way in which speech sound form system which enable speaker of a given language, to agree on when two strings of sounds ( the production of which can be infinitely varied) are basically the same; when looked at in this way, more sounds become phonemes, the basic building blocks for meaningful language units such as morphemes and word.

Acquisition is the act or process of achieving mastery of a language or a linguistic rule or element: child language acquisition; second language acquisition.

Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive, produce and use words to understand and communicate. Phonological acquisition is theoretical framework is that of gererative phonology, with a focus on autosegmental, feature-geometric, underspecified, and prosodic  representation.
Phonological acquisition is regular; this means that once the correlations between the adult system and the child's performance have been worked out, one can correctly predict the child's output for any arbitrary word of the adult language.

Morphological Errors (Only morphemes)

      
a)    Morpheme shift
I haven't satten down and writ__ it (I haven't sat down and written it)
I had forgot__ aboutten it (I had forgotten about it)
He point__ outed that . . . (He pointed out that . . .)
You __ have to do learn that (you do have to learn)
what that add__ ups to (adds up to)
who could __form at a . . . (perform at a higher level)
b)    Morpheme substitutions
Sometimes I have putten it in . . . (Sometimes I put  it in . . .)
a timeful remark (timely)
By his own admittance (admission)
Where's the fire distinguisher? (Where's the fire extinguisher?)
In accordance with those types of speech error classification, there are also some types which is considered as speech error
a.    Silent Pause    : it is a condition by which the pausing is exists during the speech. There is a period of no speech between words speech of talking. For example, turn on the // heater switch.
b.    Filled pause    : it is a gap which is filled by a…. ah,,,, er…. uumm.. etc. for example  turn on, ummm, the heater switch.
c.    Repeats        : basically the speaker intends to say something, though he/she makes speech error through repeating one of the words in a row. For example, turn on the heater/ the heater switch.
 

Types of Speech Error

Types of Speech Error

A.    Phonological Substitutions (Only lexemes)
a)    Perseveration
·    John gave the goy a ball (John gave the boy a ball)
b)    Anticipation
·    alsho share (also share)
c)    Feature Substitution
·    tap stobs ([^Voiced]) (tab stops)
·    Cedars of Lemadon ([^Nasal]) Cedars of Lebanon

B.    Lexical (Word) Selection Errors (Only lexemes)
a)    Semantically Based Substitution Errors
v    Antonym Substitution
It's too damn hot . . . , I mean, cold in here
He rode his bicycle tomorrow (yesterday)
All I need is something for my elbows (shoulders)
v    Synonym Substitution is not perceived as an error:
I was starving (ravenous)
on the couch (sofa)
on the pier (dock)
b)    Phonologically Based Word Substitutions
He has a new commuter (computer)
The instructions gave no inclination . . . indication as to how to do it
verbal outfit (output)
his immoral soul (immortal)
c)    Word Substitutions with Morphological Stranding
they are Turking talkish (talking Turkish)
it waits to pay (pays to wait)
you have to square it facely (face it squarely)
d)    Blends (Only lexemes)
My stummy hurts (stomach/tummy)
There's a dreeze blowing through the room (draft/breeze)
It was maistly, ah, mostly his doing (mainly/mostly)
At the end of todays lection (lecture/lesson)
This is not much of a universary (university/nursery)
e)    General Malapropisms : penggunaan kata yang tidak tepat.
a peckeral (cockerel)
He picked some gutter pups (butter cups)
I'm ravished! (ravenous!)
It's the Chinese who practice Acapulco (acupuncture)
He was concreted (cremated)
f)    Spoonerisms (Can you figure out the targets?)
Work is the curse of the drinking class.
You have hissed all the mystery lectures, I saw you fight that liar behind the gymnasium, and, in short, you have tasted the whole worm (Reverend Spooner)

Speech Error

Definition

Speech Error is the disruption in the production of speech through a conscious or unconscious linguistic deviation from the apparently intended form of an utterance. Linguistic speech error analysis is based on the hypothesis that the phenomena of deviation observable in different components are limited by the structure of the language and can be described and explained on the basis of grammatical units and regularities and that speech errors cause one to posit inferences to basic mental abilities and representations. (Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics).General Classification of Speech Error

Broadly speaking, there are two major point of speech error classification. The first is called as Articulation disorder. It is deviation or confusion of the main articulator such as the lips, teeth, alveolar ridge, hard palate, velum, glottis, and the tongue
The second is Phonological Disorder. It is the condition when people could not be able to identify the differences between particular phonemes, for example between /k/ and /t/ in the word “call” and “tall”. However, different pronunciation will lead to different meaning.

Causes of Speech Error
Since it happens either consciously or unconsciously, the condition of the speaker however influences the speech error production. It commonly occurs when speaker is nervous, tired, anxiety, or intoxicated. When people are nervous or anxiety, the metabolism in their body declines which causes the signal inside the body transfers impulse to the brain.

In addition, it derives the adrenalin hormone to do harder which finally engages the heart. This condition consequently influences the irregularity of people. Because of this biological condition, people are stuttering when they are nervous or anxiety.

There is also a physical aspect that causes speech error. For instance, genetic syndrome like Down Syndrome, Speech Development like Autism, Hearing Loss, Illness, Neurological Disorder. Some people with speech problems, particularly articulation disorders, may have hearing problems. Even mild hearing loss may have an impact on how a person reproduces the sounds they hear. Certain birth defects, such as a cleft palate, can interfere with someone's ability to produce speech.

When a person has a cleft palate there is a hole in the roof of the mouth, which affects the movement of air through the oral and nasal passages. There also may be problems with other structures needed for speech, including the lips, teeth, and jaw.

Genetics may also play a role in some speech problems. For example, stuttering seems to run in some families. But in some cases, no one knows exactly what causes a person to have speech problems.

Language and Dialects


Many speakers do experience difficulty in deciding whether what they speak is should be called a language or a dialect of language. Haugen (1966) has pointed out that language and dialect are ambiguous term. Ordinary people quite freely to speak about various situation, but the scholars often get difficulty to deal with this problem.

In case of the Greek language, Haugen argues that language can be used to refer to a single linguistic norm or to a group of related of related norms., and dialects to refer to one of the norm; but the norm themselves are not static.

In general usage, it remains undefined whether such a dialects are part of the ‘language’ or not. In fact, the dialect is often considered as a standing outside the language. As a social norm, the dialects is a language excluded from polite norm. Language and dialects may be employed virtually interchangeably. In some cases, it depends on entirely on extra linguistic consideration, particularly in certain political or social factors.


Morphology: Morpheme, Free Morpheme, and Bound Morpheme

Morphemes

    Morphology is the study of morpheme obviously. The definition of morphemes is the smallest meaningful unit that has grammatical function. For instance, the word tourist contains three morphemes. Those are one minimal unit of meaning tour, another minimal unit of meaning -ist (person who does something) and one minimal unit of grammatical function –s (indicating plural).

Free and Bound Morphemes

There is a broad distinction between two types of morphemes, free and bound. Free morphemes are the set of separate English word forms such as basic nouns and verbs that can stand by themselves as a single word such as open and tour. Then bound morphemes are morphemes that typically need to be attached to another form, exemplified as re-, -ist. This last set is identified as affixes. When free morphemes used with bound morphemes attached are technically known as stems. For example:
carelessness
care      -less        -ness
stem      suffix        suffix
free      bound    bound

However, there are a number of English words in which their stems are factually not free morphemes. In words such as receive, reduce, re- at the beginning of those words are identified as the bound morphemes but the elements –ceive, -duce are not separate words and free morphemes. So these types of form are described as ‘bound stems’ to distinguish them from ‘free stems’ such as dress and care.

Morphology; Types of the Morphemes


In morphology, there are two broad categories of morphemes: free morphem and bound morpheme

A. Free Morphemes

What we have described as free morphemes fall into two categories. The first category is that set of ordinary nouns, adjectives and verbs which we think of as the word carrying the ‘content’ of message we convey. This free morpheme is called lexical morphemes and some examples are: boy, men, tiger, sad, long and yellow. We can add new lexical morphemes to the language rather easily, so they are treated as an ‘open’ class of words. 

The other group of free morphemes is called functional morphemes.  The examples are: and, but, when, on, near, in, the, that. This set consists largely of the functional words in the language such as conjunctions, prepositions, articles and pronouns. Because we almost never add new functional morphemes to the language, they are described as a ‘close’ class of words.

 B. Bound Morphemes

Affixes are often named as the bound morpheme. This group includes prefixes, suffixes, infixes, and circum fixes. Prefixes are added to the beginning of another morpheme, suffixes are added to the end, infixes are inserted into other morphemes, and circum fixes are attached to another morpheme at the beginning and end. 

Following are examples of each of these:

Prefix: re- added to do produces redo
Suffix: -or added to edit produces editor
Infix: -um- added to fikas (strong) produces fumikas (to be strong) in Bontoc
Circum fix: ge- and -t to lieb (love) produces geliebt (loved) in German
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