Tampilkan postingan dengan label Speech Acts. Tampilkan semua postingan
Tampilkan postingan dengan label Speech Acts. Tampilkan semua postingan

Problem Statement and The Most Important Aspects

To begin with, that is being the expert. The researchers should have good knowledge in their field.If the subject had been learned deeply, however it will be in the specific skill that the researchers used to be sensitive in their field.  Example: someone with the expertise on a teaching field, he should notice or be critics to the problems happening related to the teaching matters.

 After that, the following point is the academic program. The one who has been experienced in education program, definitely she/he will learn and know more about the academic field.

Language Comprehension; An Introduction

Comprehension occurs as the listener builds a mental representation of the information contained within the language that a speaker is using… the listener's general knowledge and level of cognitive development will have a bearing on the comprehension of the message. To generate an accurate mental representation… it means that the listener has to process the language and the concepts.
In particular, lexical knowledge can affect the perception of phonemes. A number of researchers have found evidence for interactivity in the form of lexical effects on the perception of sublexical units. Wurm and Samuel (1997), for example, reported that listeners’ knowledge of words can lead to the inhibition of certain phonemes. Samuel (1997) found additional evidence of interactivity by studying the phenomenon of phonemic restoration. This refers to the fact that listeners continue to “hear” phonemes that have been removed from the speech signal and replaced by noise. Samuel discovered that the restored phonemes produced by lexical activation lead to reliable shifts in how listeners labeled ambiguous phonemes.
If we recognize words, and perceive speech generally, via our stored memory for linguistic forms, it may also be true that we perceive aspects of the world around us, as presented to us through non-linguistic means, via our stored knowledge of the way the world works. So, we are able to address the phenomenon of ambiguity and further issues in interpretation, concentrating on how the listener arrives at a reconstruction of what the speaker wishes to communicate be.

Speech Acts By J.L. Austin


In speech acts, J.L Austin has a theory about the performative acts in which a person is not just saying something but it is actually doing something if certain real world conditions are met. He pointed out that perforamtives should met felicity conditions in order to be successful. A conventional procedures,  all participants must execute the procedures, and finally the necessary thoughts, feelings, and intentions must be present in all parties. Austin devides performatives into five categories; verdictives, exercitives, commissives, behabitives, and expositives.

On the other side, Searle argued that we can speak minimally at three kinds of acts. There are utterance acts which refers to the fact that we must utter words and sentences when we want to say anything at all, prepositional acts which refers to those matters that have to do with referring and predicitng, and illocutionary acts which refers to the intents of the speakers. As the additinon, Searle also regulates some rules in governing promise-making. Those are the propositional content, preparatory rules, sincerity rules and the essential rules.

In oppose to Austin, who concentrate his study on how the speakers realize their intentions in speaking, Searle focuses on how listeners respond to the utterances. Both Austin and Searle recognize that the people use language to achieve the variety of objectives.
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